Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh
ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్


Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Coordinates: 16°30′N 80°38′E / 16.50°N 80.64°E / 16.50; 80.64Coordinates: 16°30′N 80°38′E / 16.50°N 80.64°E / 16.50; 80.64
Country  India
Formation 1 October 1953 (1953-10-01) (carved out of Madras State as Andhra State)
1 November 1956 (1956-11-01) (first established including Telangana)
2 June 2014 (2014-06-02) (re-organised excluding Telangana)[1]
Capital city Hyderabad (de jure)
Amaravati (de facto seat of governance)
Largest city Visakhapatnam
Districts 13
  Body Government of Andhra Pradesh
  Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan
  Chief Minister Nara Chandrababu Naidu (TDP)
  Legislature Bicameral (175 + 58 seats)
  Lok sabha constituencies 25
  High Court High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad
  Total 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi)
Area rank 8th
Population (2011)[2]
  Total 49,386,799
  Rank 10th
  Density 308/km2 (800/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30 GMT)
Vehicle registration AP
Literacy rate 67.41
Official language Telugu
Coastline 972 kilometres (604 mi)
GSDP 5.2 lakh crore (US$77 billion)
GSDP per-capita 104,000 (US$1,500)
Website AP State Portal

^† The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 states that Hyderabad is joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years. A new capital is planned to be developed between Guntur and Vijaywada.

Symbols of Andhra Pradesh
Emblem Poorna kumbham


Song Maa Telugu Talliki





Indian roller


Water Lilly





River Godavari, Krishna, Penna and Tungabhadra


Andhra Pradesh (/ˌɑːndrə prəˈdɛʃ/)( pronunciation ) is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country. The state is the eighth largest state in India covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi).[3] As per 2011 census of India, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of the state was bifurcated to form a new state of Telangana. In accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years.[4] The new river-front proposed capital in Guntur district is Amaravati, which is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA.[5] The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of the state in the 2014–15 financial year at current prices stood at 5,200.3 billion (US$77 billion) and 4,641.84 billion (US$69 billion) in the 2013–14 financial year.[6]

The state has a coastline of 974 km (605 mi), the second longest among all the states of India after Gujarat.[3][7] It is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 km2 (12 sq mi) of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta to the east of the state.[8]

There are two regions in the state namely Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema.[9] These two regions comprise 13 districts, with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam is the largest city and a commercial hub of the state with a GDP of $26 billion followed by Vijayawada with a GDP of $3 billion as of 2010.[10][11]

Telugu Thalli


A tribe named Andhra has been mentioned in the Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana (800-500 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhras left north India and settled in south India.[12][13][14]

Early history

Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati, Dharanikota and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire. Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of emperor Ashoka, the Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE, and was replaced by several small kingships in the Andhra region.[15]

Satavahana empire

The Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BCE to the 3rd century CE.[16] The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names "Andhra", "Andhrara-jatiya" and "Andhra-bhrtya" in the Puranic literature.[17][18] Satavahanas do not refer to themselves as "Andhra" in any of their coins or inscriptions; it could be possible that they were termed as "Andhras" because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.[19]

Dharanikota along with Amaravathi was the capital of the later Satavahanas.[20] Amaravathi became a major trade and pilgrimage centre during the Satavahana rule. According to the Buddhist tradition, Nagarjuna lived here, possibly in second and third centuries CE.[21]


Andhra Ikshvakus were one of the earliest recorded ruling dynasties of the Guntur-Krishna regions of Andhra Pradesh. They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the later half of the second century CE. Puranas called Andhra Ikshvakus Shri Parvatiya Andhras.[22][23] Their capital was Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). It is a strong common belief among some historians that Andhra Ikshvakus were related to the mythological Ikshvakus, while some believe Andhra Ikshvakus seem to be a local tribe who adopted the title.[22][24]

Archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley. Ikshvakus have left inscriptions at Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati and Bhattiprolu.[22]


During third century AD, there was utter political and military confusion in the coastal Andhra due to the invasion of the Abhiras and their allies on the last Ikshvaku remnants and the rise of the Brihatphalayanas, the Anandagotras and the Salankayanas on the other. Simha Varma of the Manchikallu stone inscription establishes the independent rule of the Pallavas in parts of the Krishna valley of Andhra Pradesh.

During the reign of Maharaja Sivaskanda Varma of the Mayidavolu, Hirahadagalli, the early Pallavas became dominant power in the first quarter of the fourth century AD Sivaskanda Varma was the first great ruler of the early Pallavas. He extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the south Pennar in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices.

Most of the Pallava Prakrit and Sanskrit charters from the southern Andhra country intimately connects them with the history of southern Andhra. The influence of the Pallavas was still felt by Andhra till it was swept by the Western Chalukyan invasion led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the seventh century AD. The Pallavas were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD. Pallavas were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings.[25]


Since the fall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty, which held sway way over the entire Andhra country including Kalinga and parts of Telangana and played an important and imperial role in the history of Deccan during the fifth and sixth century AD.[26]


The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital as Vengi, modern Pedavegi 12 km from Eluru in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India's from 300 to 440 AD. They were Brahmins and their name is derived from their symbol and gotra name, which stood for Nandi (the bull of Shiva).[27]

Eastern Chalukyas

Eastern Chalukyas, or Chalukyas of Vengi, were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi near Eluru and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola empire. The Vengi kingdom was continued to be ruled by Eastern Chalukyan kings under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E., when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. They had their capital originally at Vengi near Eluru of the West Godavari district end later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry).[28]

Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty ruled Andhra during the period of 1010–1200. The Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.

The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE.[29][30]

Reddy dynasty

The Reddy dynasty (1325–1448 CE)[31][32][33] was established in present-day coastal Andhra Pradesh by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early fourteenth century. The region that was ruled by this dynasty spanned present day coastal andhra from Visakhapatnam in the north to Kanchipuram in the south. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal.[34] Today Reddys is a social group or caste of India, predominantly inhabiting the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

Vijayanagara Empire

The Vijayanagara Empire was an empire originated South India, in the Deccan Plateau region in the early fourteenth century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty.[35][36][37] The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the thirteenth century.[38][39] It lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 to the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India.[40]

The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. The Vijayanagara empire's time is considered as the golden era of South India in many aspects by historian be it prosperity, welfare, wealth, military might and nurturing of arts. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor.[41]

Modern history

Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal.[42] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.[43]

In the early 19th century, Northern Circars was ceded and it became part of the British East India company held Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.[44] Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.In 1947 Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu Princely state in Andhra Pradesh.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.[45]

Post independence

In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic differences and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)". After Potti Sreeramulu's death, the Telugu-speaking areas, i.e. Andhra State, was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city.[46]

On the basis of a gentlemen's agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State.[47] Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014

In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts. Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for 10 years for both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.[4] The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India.[48] The formation of a new state named Telangana from Andhra Pradesh is not considered an amendment to the Constitution of India per article 3 and 4 of that document.[49]

As per the amendment to Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, 7 mandals from Khammam district of Telangana have been transferred to Andhra Pradesh. Four mandals from Bhadrachalam revenue division namely, Chinturu, Kunavaram, Vararamachandrapuram, Bhadrachalam (excluding the Bhadrachalam town) were transferred to East Godavari district. Three mandals namely, Kukunoor, Velerupadu and Burgampadu (except 12 villages namely, Pinapaka, Morampalli, Banjara, Burgampadu, Naginiprolu, Krishnasagar, Tekulapalli, Sarapaka, Iravendi, Motepattinagar, Uppusaka, Nakiripeta and Sompalli) of Palvancha revenue division in Khammam district have been added to West Godavari district.[50][51] Number of petitions questioning the validity of Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 are pending for verdict for nearly two years before the Supreme court constitutional bench.[52]


Andhra Pradesh Topo Map
Map of Andhra Pradesh
Krishna River at Srisailam

Geographically, Andhra Pradesh has varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamala Hills to the shores of Bay of Bengal that supports varied ecosystems, rich diversity of flora and fauna. There are two main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari, that flow through the state. The state has two regions Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema.[53] The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penna rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Kadapa Basin[54] formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions. Lambasingi (or Lammasingi), a village in the Chintapalli Mandal of Visakhapatnam district is situated at 1000 meters above the sea level. It is the only place in South India which has snowfall and is also nicknamed as Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh. Throughout the year the temperature here ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.[55][56]

Natural vegetation

Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 km2.[57] The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces.[58] They are:

  1. Deccan Plateau
  2. Central Plateau
  3. Eastern Highland
  4. East Coastal Plains

Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. These Ghats have rich biological diversity with a wide variety of plants, birds and lesser forms of animal life. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous types with a mixture of teak, Terminalia, Dalbergia, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, etc. The state possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum, etc.[58]

The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of river Godavari and Krishna support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.[58]


The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.

July to September is the season for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from the southwest monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the northeast monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C.[59]


As of 2011 Census of India, the state had a population of 49,386,799 with a population density of 308/km2 (800/sq mi). The total population constitute, 70.4% of rural population with 34,776,389 inhabitants and 29.6% of urban population with 14,610,410 inhabitants. Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 5,222,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population, among them 2,686,453 are boys and 2,535,931 are girls. Visakhapatnam district has the largest urban population of 47.5% and Srikakulam district with 83.8%, has the largest rural population, among others districts in the state. The overall population of the state comprises 17.1% of Scheduled Caste and 5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.[3]

There are 24,738,068 male and 24,648,731 female citizens—a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The literacy rate of the state stands at 67.41%. West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.6% and Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.9%.[2][60]

Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores[61] with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Krishna, West Godavari and Chittoor are the three districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.

Visakhapatnam is the most populous city in Andhra Pradesh, and the 15th largest city in India


The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu.[62] The Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued a declaration of the Telugu language as a Classical Language.[63] Other languages often spoken in the state include Tamil, Kannada and Odia.[64]


Religion in Andhra Pradesh [65]
Religion Percent

According to the 2011 census, the Andhra Pradesh state's population (before the state's bifurcation, hence includes religious affiliation from neighbouring Telangana too) (This does not reflect the current religious affiliation in Andhra Pradesh formed as of 2 July 2014, religious data for Andhra Pradesh is around 91.25% Hindu with a Muslim minority of 6.25% along with smaller numbers of Christians, Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists.[65]


Andhra Pradesh is home to Shankaracharya of Pushpagiri Peetham. Other Hindu saints include Sadasiva Brahmendra, Bhaktha Kannappa, Yogi Vemana, Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami, who was born in the Vishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste.[66]

Rock-cut Buddha statue at Bojjannakonda near Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam

Buddhism spread to Andhra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna River valley was "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years."[67] The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."[68]

The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana-buddhism, along with the Magadha-erea in northeastern India.[69][70] A.K. Warder holds that "the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Andhra country."[71] According to Xing, "Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern India probably in the Andhra country, on the Krishna River."[72] The Prajñāpāramitā Sutras belong to the earliest Mahayana Sutras.[73][74]

Administrative divisions

The state is divided into two regions viz., Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. It has a total of 13 districts, with nine in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. These 13 districts are further divided into 49 revenue divisions and they are in turn divided into 664 mandals. Chittoor district has the most number of mandals with 66 and Srikakulam district has the least with 38.[75] There are as many as 7 revenue divisions in East Godavari district and only 2 in Vizianagaram district.[3][76]

The districts in the state are Anantapur, Chittoor, East Godavari, Guntur, Kadapa, Krishna, Kurnool, Prakasam, Nellore, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and West Godavari.[77] There are a total of 31 cities which include, 16 municipal corporations and 14 municipalities. There are two million plus cities namely, Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada.

Government and politics

District Court, Guntur

Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh is the lower house of the state and legislative council of andhra pradesh is the upper house. with 58 members. In the Parliament of India, Andhra Pradesh has 11 seats in the Rajya Sabha, and 25 seats in the Lok Sabha.[78] There are a total of 175 Assembly constituencies in the state. East Godavari district has the most number of constituencies with 19 and Vizianagaram district has the least with 9 assembly seats.[79] Whereas, the legislative council of the state has 58 seats, which is one-third of total assembly seats.[80]

Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played an important role in the 1950s. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who later served as President of India.[81][82]

In 1983, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T. Rama Rao became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is the founder of Telugu Desam party and served as the first chief minister from the party.[83] The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992.

N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004).[84] In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, came to power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu.

In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent INC and its allies and Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister. Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became Chief Minister again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party and a major alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Konijeti Rosaiah, former state finance minister, became the Chief Minister on 3 September 2009, who resigned on 24 November 2010 on the grounds of increased work pressure. Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy was sworn in as the new Chief Minister, who was also the last Chief Minister of the united Andhra Pradesh. He resigned after the announcement of the state bifurcation. President's rule was imposed and the state assembly was dissolved.

In what would be the last elections held in the unified state, Telugu Desam Party got a mandate in their favour in the residuary (new)state. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the chief of Telugu Desam Party became Chief Minister on 8 June 2014, for the new state of Andhra Pradesh.[85]


Visakhapatnam is an important commercial hub of the state
seaport distance view
Visakhapatnam Skyline, overlooking seaport

Andhra Pradesh was ranked eighth among other Indian states in terms of GSDP for the financial year 2014–15. The GSDP at current prices was 5200.3 billion and at constant prices was 2645.21 billion.[86] The domestic product of agriculture sector accounts for 545.99 billion (US$8.1 billion) and Industrial sector for 507.45 billion (US$7.5 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more percentage of the GSDP with a total of 1,305.87 billion (US$19 billion).[87] In the 2010 list by Forbes magazine, there were several from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.[88]


Lush green farms in Konaseema, East Godavari

Andhra Pradesh economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state and provide irrigation. 60 percent of population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of India".[89][90] The state has three Agricultural Economic Zones in Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, Krishna district for mangoes, Guntur district for chilies.[91]

Besides rice, farmers also grow jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts are popular. There are many multi-state irrigation projects under development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.[92]

Livestock and poultry is also another profitable business, which involves rearing cattle in enclosed areas for commercial purposes. The state is also a largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it is nicknamed as "Egg Bowl of Asia".[93][94]

Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production[95] of India. The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. The most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp[96] and are expected to cross $1 billion in 2013–14.[97]

Industrial sector

Front of large round building, with street and trees in front
Tech Mahindra Development Centre, Visakhapatnam

The industrial sector of the state includes some of the key sectors like Pharma, Automobile, Textiles etc. Sricity located in Chittoor district is an integrated business city which is home to many renowned firms like PepsiCo, Isuzu Motors, Cadbury India, Kellogg's, Colgate-Palmolive, Kobelco etc.[98] The PepsiCo firm has its largest plant in India at Sri City.[99]

The state is also emerging in information technology and biotechnology. The IT/ITES revenues of Visakhapatnam is at 14.45 billion (US$210 million) in 2012–13. The development of IT in Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada, Kakinada and Tirupati is also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–13, Vijayawada's IT/ITeS revenues were 1,152.6 million (US$17 million) crore. Tirupati with 693 million (US$10 million) and Kakinada with 615.4 million (US$9.1 million) stand next.[100]


Andhra Pradesh is one of the storehouses of mineral resources in India. Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich and variety of industrial minerals and building stones.[101]

Andhra Pradesh is listed top in the deposit and production of mica in India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of oil and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, iron ore, ball clay, fire clay, gold diamonds, graphite, dolomite, quartz, tungsten, steatitic, feldspar, silica sand. It has about one third of India's limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of barytes and galaxy granite in the international market.[101]


Mining is identified as one of the growth engines for the overall development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totalling three times its current size. 700 million tonnes of metal grade Bauxite deposits in proximity to Visakhapatnam Port.

Reliance Industries Limited struck nine trillion cubic feet of gas reserves in the KG basin, 150 km (93 mi) off the Andhra Pradesh coast near Kakinada. Discovery of large quantity of natural gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.[102] During the year 2016, nearly 134 trillion cubic feet of methane hydrate deposits were explored in KG basin whose extraction is adequate to impart energy security for many decades to India.[103]

Power plants

The state is a pioneer nationwide in hydro electricity generation. APGENCO is the power generating organisation of the state.[104] The state has become power surplus with excess power generation being exported to other states.[105]

Thermal (natural gas and coal based) and renewable power plants totalling to 21,000 MW were installed in the state by the year 2015. Local power plants of 9,600 MW capacity only are supplying electricity in the state which includes Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant (2000 MW) of NTPC, Vizag Thermal Power Station (1040 MW), Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station (1050 MW), Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station (1600 MW), Vijayawada Thermal Power Plant (1760 MW), etc. Hydel power plants are having a capacity of 1671 MW.[106]


Arts, crafts and artefacts

Kondapalli Toys at a house in Vijayawada

There are as many as thirteen geographical indications from the state of Andhra Pradesh as per Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.[107] The geographical indications from the state covers handicrafts, foodstuff and textiles such as, Bobbili Veena, Budithi Bell and Brass Craft, Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas, Guntur Sannam, Kondapalli Toys, Machilipatnam Kalamkari, Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics, Srikalahasti Kalamkari, Tirupati Laddu, Uppada Jamdani Sari and Venkatagiri Sari.

Machilipatnam and Srikalahasti Kalamkari's are the two unique textile art forms practised in India.[108] There are also other notable handicrafts present in the state, like the soft limestone idol carvings of Durgi.[109] Etikoppaka in Visakhapatnam district is notable for its Lac industry, producing lacquered wooden.[110][111]

The state has many museums, which features a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions, and religious artefacts such as the archaeological museum at Amaravati[112] with features relics of nearby ancient sites, Visakha Museum and Telugu Cultural Museum in Visakhapatnam displays the history of the pre-Independence and Telugu culture and Heritage and the Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada with large collection of artifacts.


Main article: Telugu literature

Nannayya, Tikkana and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu language. Nannayya wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar called Andhra Shabda Chintamani in Sanskrit, as there was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to that.[113] Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam. Vemana is notable for his philosophical poems. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam is termed as Adhunika Sahityam. He is known as Gadya Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel, Satyavati Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.[114]

Dance forms and festivals

Kuchipudi, dance by Yamini Reddy


Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The various classical dance forms such as Kuchipudi, Andhra Natyam, Bhamakalapam, Veeranatyam and folk dances forms such as Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, and Chindu exists in Andhra Pradesh. Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh.[115] Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.


Balamuralikrishna during a concert in Kuwait on 29 March 2006

Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, P B Srinivas. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.[116]


Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story. Harikatha was originated in Andhra.[117] Harikatha Kalakshepam is most prevalent in Andhra Pradesh even now along with Burra katha. Haridasus going round villages singing devotional songs is an age-old tradition during Dhanurmaasam preceding Sankranti festival.

Burra katha

Burra katha is an oral storytelling technique in the Katha tradition, performed in villages of coastal Andhra Pradesh region. The troupe consists of one main performer and two co-performers. It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes. The topic will be either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue.[118]

Telugu cinema

Main article: Telugu Cinema

In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film culture (or, "Tollywood") is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood Film Industry.[119] Prolific film producer from the state, D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most number of films produced by a person.[120]

In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[121][122] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[123]


Main article: Telugu cuisine
A Vegetarian Andhra Meal served on important occasions

Cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is famous for the rich seasoning and lots of variety. Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of dishes. Typical meal includes rice, pappu (dal), vegetable curry, relishes, pickles, chutneys and curd.

Pickles and chutneys (sauces) are made from chilli, ginger, coconut and other vegetables like tomato, brinjals, gongura are served with meals. Aavakaaya is probably the best known of the pickles.[124] Roselle leaves (gongura), termed as Andhra bhakshyam (or food of Andhra). Rayalaseema region too had its own variety which includes jonna (jowar), ragi roti with ragi sangati, usually served with spinach.

The coastal region of the state has abundant seafood supply. The variety of fish curry recipes are famous. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken are also the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes.[125]


Hindu Pilgrimage sites map of Andhra Pradesh (click on the image to enlarge)

Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department, APTDC as the Koh-i-Noor of India.


The seacoast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district.[126] The coastline has many beaches, namely Ramakrishna, Rushikonda, Bheemili, Suryalanka, Krishnapatnam, Vodarevu beach, Uppada beaches etc.[127] The state tourism board APTDC promotes tourism in the state.


Borra Caves in the Ananthagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Visakhapatnam are a million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. Belum Caves in Kurnool district are the second largest natural caves of 3.229 km (2.006 mi) in length on the Indian subcontinent.[127] Undavalli caves are Indian rock-cut architecture in Guntur district.[128]

Valleys and Hills

Araku Valley is the famous hill station in Visakhapatnam district with thick forests, coffee plantations and waterfalls. Horsley Hills is a summer hill resort in the Chittoor district, situated at an elevation of 1,265 metres (4,150 ft), has natural flora and fauna. Papi Hills in East Godavari district is famous for its scenic beauty of the location in the river Godavari with.[127] Arma Konda peak located in Visakhapatnam district is the highest peak in Eastern Ghats.


The state has rich forests, diverse flora & fauna that provides ample scope for promoting ecotourism. The state has many Sanctuaries, National Parks, Zoological Parks such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Park etc. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary, Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attracts many migratory birds.[129]

Religious destinations

Apart from these, the state is home to many pilgrim destinations. It has many temples and shrines, mosques, and churches. Some famous temples, mosques, Buddhist shrines and churches of religious importance which are often visited by many tourists include Tirumala Temple in Chitoor District, Simhachalam Temple in Visakhapatnam District, Annavaram temple in East Godavari District, Dwaraka Tirumala in West Godavari District, Srisailam temple in Kurnool District, Kanaka Durga Temple of Vijayawada, Kotappakonda in Narasaraopet, Amaravathi, Srikalahasti temple,[130] Shahi jamia masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda etc.,[131] and many more as well.

Adventure sports

Andhra Pradesh government has started promoting adventure sports as a tourism industry in 2015. The state has long coastlines with amazing backwaters as well as numerous hills and mountain ranges. It has started partnering with specialist companies to develop and maintain these areas. Horsley Hills is 3 hours drive from Bengaluru and is the highest point in Andhra Pradesh also called Coorg of Andhra Pradesh. Gandikota in Kadapa district has some magnificent gorges. Puligundu [132] is another place close to Bengaluru with rock climbing already happening [133] through Freakouts Adventure Solutions.[134] The state has also initiated water sports in numerous places along the coast.[135]


The state is well connected to other states through road and rail networks. It is also connected to other countries by means of airways and seaports as well. With a long seacoast along the Bay of Bengal, it also has many ports for sea trade. The state has one of the largest railway junctions at Vijayawada and one of the largest seaports at Visakhapatnam.


See also: APSRTC
Garuda Plus bus service of the APSRTC

Roads in Andhra Pradesh consist of National Highways and state highways with district roads as well. NH 5, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project. It also forms part of AH 45 which comes under the Asian Highway Network.

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public bus transport owned by the state government which runs thousands of buses connecting different parts of the state. Pandit Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in Vijayawada is one of the largest bus terminals in Asia.[136]


Andhra Pradesh has a railway network of 5,046 km (3,135 mi) and have played a significant role in boosting the economy of the state alongside developing the industrial and the tourism sectors. One of the highest broad gauge tracks in the world is in Eastern Ghats route that runs from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri.[137] Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under with Guntur, Vijayawada, Guntakal (South Central Railway zone and Waltair (East Coast Railway zone) divisions. This serves the north coastal districts.

Waltair Railway Division under ECoR zone, is fourth largest revenue earning division in India.[138] Vijayawada railway station is the highest grosser in the SCR zone and one of busiest railway junctions in India.


Map of airports and airstrips of Andhra Pradesh

Visakhapatnam Airport, is the only airport in the state with international connectivity. The state has five domestic airports, Vijayawada Airport at Gannavaram, Rajahmundry Airport at Madhurapudi, Tirupati Airport at Renigunta, Cuddapah Airport and a privately owned, public use airport at Puttaparthi. There are also 16 small air strips located in the state.[139]

Sea ports

A view of Visakhapatnam Harbour

Andhra Pradesh has one of the country's largest port at Visakhapatnam in terms of cargo handling.[140] The other famous ports are Krishnapatnam Port (Nellore), Gangavaram Port and Kakinada Port. Gangavaram Port is a deep seaport which can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT.[141] There are 14 notified non-major ports at Bheemunipatnam, S.Yanam, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam, Vadarevu etc.[142]

Education and research

Guntur Institute of Medical Sciences
Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nambur, Guntur district
Central Institutes Map of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 67.41% as per the 2011 Indian census. The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools under the administration of the School Education Department of the state.[143][144] The various types of schools in the state include, Municipal, Andhra Pradesh Residential, Andhra Pradesh Social Welfare Residential, Zilla Parishad and private schools. The private schools are of both aided and unaided type.[145][146] The medium of instructions followed by different schools are Telugu, English, Urdu, Hindi, Kannada, Oriya and Tamil.[147] The Directorate of Government Examinations of the state administers the conduct of Secondary School Certificate examinations.[148] 644,961 candidates took the 2015 Secondary School Certificate exam and recorded a pass percentage of 91.42% for regular and 58.57% by private candidates.[147]

According to the report of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (2011–12) and Statistical Abstract (2012–13), 3,745,340 children out of 3,805,791 (98.4%), were enrolled in Primary schools with a teacher/student ratio of 29.3%. 2,101,928 children out of 21,56,577 (97.5%), were enrolled in Upper Primary schools with a teacher/student ratio of 24.6%.[149]

Apart from thousands of schools ranging from the pre-primary to the senior secondary ones, the state is home to a number of institutes for higher education. The All India Institute of Medical Sciences is sanctioned by Government of India at Mangalagiri. The Indian Institute of Management at Visakhapatnam and Indian Institutes of Technology at Tirupathi, both started functioning from the academic year 2015–16.[150][151] NIT Tadepalligudem from 2015. The Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy at Visakhapatnam started functioning from the year 2016 under the mentorship of IIT Kharagpur.[152] The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Andhra Pradesh.[153] The higher education includes many colleges, universities and research institutes providing professional education in the fields of arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary sciences, with undergraduate and post graduation. GITAM,K L University and Vignan University are the Deemed Universities.

Major state universities in the state are Andhra University, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (Anantapur, Kakinada, Vizianagaram and Pulivendula),[154][155] Dravidian University, Krishna University, Rayalaseema University, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Sri Venkateswara University, Adikavi Nannaya University and Vikrama Simhapuri University. Other universities include, Dr. N.T.R. University of Health Sciences, Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University,[156] Sri Venkateswara Vedic University sponsored and supported by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams.[157]


Research institutes have been set up by the central government in the state. School of Planning and Architecture at Vijayawada is an autonomous research institute under Ministry of Human Resource Development of Government of India, National Atmospheric Research Laboratory carry out fundamental and applied research in Atmospheric and Space Sciences,[158] Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Tirupati,[159] Society For Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research, Visakhapatnam Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry under control of ICAR (Indian Council of Agriculture Research) conducts fundamental and applied research on Tobacco for the benefit of the farming community,[160] Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research (IIOPR) at Pedavegi in West Godavari district serves as a centre for conducting and co-ordinating research on all aspects of oil palm conservation, improvement, production, protection, post-harvest technology and transfer of technology,[161] CCRH Regional Research Institute at Gudivada, Clinical Research Institute at Tirupati and National Institute of Oceanography[162] at Visakhapatnam are some of them.[163]

Space research organisation

Indian Space Research Organisation (or Sriharikota Range (SHAR)) at barrier island of Sriharikota in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh is a satellite launching station.[164] It is India's primary orbital launch site. India's lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre at 6:22 AM IST on 22 October 2008.[165]


ACA-VDCA cricket stadium at Visakhapatnam

The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development in cricket, field hockey, association football, Olympic weightlifting, chess, water sports, tennis, badminton, table tennis, cycling, etc.[166] Sports like kho kho, kabaddi and volleyball are played mostly in Andhra Pradesh.

One of the most popular sports in Andhra Pradesh is cricket. The ACA-VDCA Stadium in Visakhapatnam is the home to the Andhra Pradesh cricket team. The venue hosts international as well as domestic matches. Maharajkumar of Vizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, M. S. K. Prasad, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Venkatapathy Raju, Sravanthi Naidu, Yalaka Venugopal Rao etc., are some of the cricketers from the state. Notable personalities from other sports include, A. Ramana Rao, Karnam Malleswari (Weight Lifting), Pullela Gopichand (Badminton), P. V. Sindhu (Badminton), Chetan Anand (badminton), Kamineni Eswara Rao (Arjuna Award winner) etc. Humpy Koneru, Pendyala Harikrishna, Dronavalli Harika are the Grandmasters in Chess.


The electronic media with wide range of news channels and print media that cover many national newspapers enlightens the people of Andhra Pradesh with all important political, economic and social news of national as well as international importance. Some of the notable Telugu newspapers are Eenadu, Andhra Jyothy, Sakshi, Andhra Bhoomi, Vaartha etc. and English daily includes Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, The Hindu etc. For the purpose of business related news the print media has certain publishers namely The Economic Times, Business Line.

See also


  1. "The Gazette of India" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014. Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 "Demography" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Administrative and Geographical Profile" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  4. 1 2 "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). India Code Legislative Department. Ministry of Law and Justice. 1 March 2014. p. 2. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  5. "Capital City be named as "Amaravati"" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department – Andhra Pradesh. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  6. "Indian states by GDP". Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  7. "Length of coastline" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  8. "Yanam of Puducherry". Gov.t of Yanam. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  9. Shankarlal C. Bhatt (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories (Volume 2 ed.). Gyan Publishing House. p. 15. ISBN 978-81-7835-358-6. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  10. "India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP". Yahoo Finance. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  11. Nicole Bippen (17 February 2014). "The 10 Richest Indian Cities". The Richest. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  12. "Dance Dialects of India". Ragini Devi. Motilal Bansarsi Dass. ISBN 81-208-0674-3. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  13. "History of Andhra Pradesh". AP Online. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  14. "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh". P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. iv. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  15. Akira Shimada (2012). Early Buddhist Architecture in Context: The Great St?pa at Amar?vat? (ca. 300 BCE-300 CE). BRILL. pp. 33–40. ISBN 90-04-23283-4.
  16. Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-4381-0996-1.
  17. Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 172–176. ISBN 9788122411980.
  18. Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya (1974). Some Early Dynasties of South India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 17–56.
  19. Carla M. Sinopoli (2001). "On the edge of empire: form and substance in the Satavahana dynasty". In Susan E. Alcock. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–168.
  20. Ram Sharan Sharma (1987). Urban decay in India, c. 300-c. 1000. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. 95. ISBN 978-81-215-0045-6.
  21. David M. Knipe (2015). Vedic Voices: Intimate Narratives of a Living Andhra Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-19-026673-8.
  22. 1 2 3 Durga Prasad. "Chapter 3". History of the Andhras (PDF). P. G. Publishers. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  23. "Andhra Ikshvaku inscriptions". The Hindu.
  24. Ancient India, A History Textbook for Class XI, Ram Sharan Sharma, National Council of Educational Research and Training, India, pp. 212
  25. "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh". P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. 68. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  26. "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh and telangana". P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. 70. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  27. Ancient Indian History and civilization By S. N. Sen.
  28. "About Eastern Chalukyas - Official AP State Government Portal - AP State Portal".
  29. "Age of Telugu language". The Hindu. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  30. Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian epigraphy : a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages (1. publ. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-19-509984-2.
  31. Pran Nath Chopra (1982). Religions and communities of India. Vision Books. p. 136. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
  32. Mallampalli Somasekhara Sarma; Mallampalli Sōmaśēkharaśarma (1948). History of the Reddi kingdoms (circa. 1325 A.D. to circa 1448 A.D.). Andhra University. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  33. Government Of Madras Staff; Government of Madras (1 January 2004). Gazetteer of the Nellore District: brought up to 1938. Asian Educational Services. p. 52. ISBN 978-81-206-1851-0. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
  34. The History of Andhras, Durga Prasad (
  35. By James Mansel Longworth page 204
  36. edited by J C morris page 261
  37. By Om Gupta, page 428-429
  38. Nilakanta Sastry (1955), p216
  39. Kamath (2001), p160
  40. "Master Plan for Hampi Local Planning Area" (PDF).
  41. Historians such as P. B. Desai (History of Vijayanagar Empire, 1936), Henry Heras (The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara, 1927), B.A. Saletore (Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire, 1930), G.S. Gai (Archaeological Survey of India), William Coelho (The Hoysala Vamsa, 1955) and Kamath (Kamath 2001, pp. 157–160)
  42. Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A contribution to the history of India, Chapter 2 "A Forgotten Empire". 15 June 2016.
  43. Richards, J. F. (1975). "The Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707". Modern Asian Studies. 9 (2): 241–260. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00004996.
  44. "Tributes paid to Telangana martyrs". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 September 2005.
  45. "HYDERABAD: The Holdout". Time. 30 August 1948. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  46. "Post-Independence Era, then and now". Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  47. "Know Hyderabad: History". Pan India Network. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  48. "Telangana state formation gazette". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  49. "Constitution of India Sub-section". 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  50. "Ordinance on Polavaram project promulgated". The Hans India. Hyderabad. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  51. "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation (Amendment) Act, 2014" (PDF). India code. Ministry of Law and Justice, Legislative Department. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  52. "Supreme court refers Telangana petitions to constitution bench". NDTV. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  53. "Andhra Pradesh Geography". Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  54. "Kadapa basin". Directorate General of Hydrocarbons. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  55. Ganguly, Nivedita (17 September 2014). "Lambasingi set to become tourist hotspot". The Hindu. Visakhapatnam. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  56. "Lambasingi records 2º c". Deccan Chronicle. Visakhapatnam. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  57. "Forests in AP facts.". AP Forest department. Archived from the original on 28 October 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  58. 1 2 3 "Natural vegetation and wildlife". AP Forest Department. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  59. Aptdc, Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation (27 May 2010). "APTDC – Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation". Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  60. "INDIA AT A GLANCE : CENSUS 2011". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  61. "Human Development Report 2007" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  62. "Telugu Language". AP State Portal. Government of India. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  63. "Classical Language". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  64. "English Demography". Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  65. 1 2 "Census of India – Religious Composition". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  66. "Sri Potuluri Veera Brahmendra Swami". Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
  67. Davidson, Ronald. Tibetan Renaissance. Columbia 2005, pp. 29.
  68. Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, pg. 2.
  69. Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, p.1
  70. Peter Harvey (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, Cambridge University Press, p.108
  71. Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 313
  72. Guang Xing. The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early Buddhism to the Trikaya Theory. 2004. pp. 65–66
  73. Williams, Paul. Buddhist Thought. Routledge, 2000, pages 131.
  74. Williams, Paul. Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations 2nd edition. Routledge, 2009, pg. 47.
  75. "Administrative and Geographical Profile" (PDF). Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  76. "Part-I State Administrative Divisions 2001–2011" (PDF). Census of India. p. 6. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  77. "Population of AP districts(2011)" (PDF). p. 14. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  78. "Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly".
  79. "DELIMITATION OF PARLIAMENTARY AND ASSEMBLY CONSTITUENCIES ORDER, 2008" (PDF). Election Commission of India. pp. 16–28. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  80. "Overview". AP Legislature. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  81. "The Hindu, November 25, 2012". Chennai, India. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  82. "The Hindu, on the election and Presidency". Chennai, India. 15 June 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  83. "Telugu Desam turns 29.". Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  84. "Length of time as Chief Minister". Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  85. "CBN to be sworn as CM of Andhra on June 8th". Deccan-Journal. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  86. "Indian states by GDP". Statistics Times. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  87. "Economy" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. AP state portal. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  88. "India's Richest". 29 September 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  89. Appaji Reddem. "Rice bowl of India". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  90. India Today. ABC-CLIO. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  91. "'United AP stood second in agri exports'". The Hindu. Vijayawada. 17 January 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  92. "Irrigation Projects". Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Water Resources. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  93. "Socio Economic Survey 2013–14" (PDF). AP State Portal. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 3. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  94. Mohanty, Muktikanta (2010). Macmillan's General Knowledge Manual 2010. Macmillan. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-230-32874-7. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  95. Special Correspondent. "AP top producer of shrimp: MPEDA". The Hindu.
  96. "Vannamei Hatcheries". Coastal Aquaculture Authority. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  97. "The $ Billion Andhra Shrimp exports".
  98. "Firms in sricity". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  99. V Rishi Kumar (3 April 2015). "PepsiCo inaugurates new facility at Sri City". Hyderabad: The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  100. "IT/ITES revenues". Times of India. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  101. 1 2 "Industrial & Fertilizer minerals" (PDF). Geological Survey of India portal. CGPB Committee-IV. pp. 17–44. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  102. "Krishna Godavari Basin: Oil & Gas Resource". Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  103. "ONGC hydrates discovery may be 4 times bigger than RIL's gas find". Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  104. "APGENGO overview". APGENCO. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  105. "Davos Visit will Boost Andhra Pradesh's Image, Says Naidu". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 26 January 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  106. "Salient features of A.P.TransCo / A.P.GenCo / DisComs" (PDF). Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  107. "State Wise Registration Details of G.I Applications" (PDF). Geographical Indication Registry. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  108. "Kalamkari: Craft of the matter". mid-day. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  109. "Durgi Stone Craft". Cesdeva. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  110. "Etikoppaka Vizag". Andhra Pradesh Tourism. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  111. Sarma, Rani (20 December 2015). "The lac industry of Etikoppaka – An art form to cherish". Times of India. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  112. "Archaeological Museum, Amaravati – Archaeological Survey of India". Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  113. Gopavaram, Padmapriya; Subrahmanyam, Korada (2011). "1". A Comparative Study Of Andhrasabdachintamani And Balavyakaranam. Hyderabad: University of Hyderabad.
  114. "Telugu Literature". Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  115. "Ntitya Ratnavali".
  116. Manorma Sharma (2007). Musical Heritage of India. APH. pp. 19–32. ISBN 81-313-0046-3.
  117. Thoomati Donappa. Telugu Harikatha Sarvasvam. OCLC 13505520.
  118. "Burrakatha loses sheen sans patronage". The Times of India. 14 Jan 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  119. "The Telugu film industry". Preethi's Web. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  120. Ramakrishnan, Sathyalaya (11 September 2010). "Prestigious 'Phalke" award conferred to Veteran Film producer D Rama Naidu". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  121. "Tollywood loses to Bollywood on numbers – Times Of India". 2 October 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  122. "Telugu film industry enters new era | Business Line". 6 November 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  123. "Largest film studio". Archived from the original on 19 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  124. "Andhra Food". Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  125. "Non-vegetarian dishes". Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  126. "Andhra Pradesh Fact File" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. AP state portal. p. 2. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  127. 1 2 3 "Tourist destinations in AP". Andhra Pradesh Tourism Department. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  129. "The List of Wetlands of International Importance" (PDF). The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971). p. 20. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  130. "Divine destinations". AP tourism department. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  131. "The Templenet Encyclopedia — Temples of Andhra Pradesh". Retrieved 26 February 2009.
  132. "Puligundu". Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  133. "Events in Puligundu". Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  134. "Freakouts Adventure Solutions". Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  136. "citi-Charter". Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  137. "Rail Network". Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  138. "Waltair division earnings". The Hindu. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  139. "Airports" (PDF). AP State Portal. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  140. "Vizag port info". vizagport. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  141. "Capacity of port". gangavaram port. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  142. "Andhra Pradesh: Opening up ports". Andhra Pradesh Department of Ports. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  143. "School Eduvation Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  144. "The Department of School Education - Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  145. Nagaraju, M.T.V (2004). Study Habits of Secondary School Students. Discovery Publishing House. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-7141-893-0. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  146. "Constitution of Working Groups" (PDF). Commissioner and Director of School Education. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  147. 1 2 "Statistics of SSC 2015 Results". Board of Secondary Education Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  148. "Andhra Pradesh SSC Class 10 results 2016 likely to be declared today at 12 pm". Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  149. "Education in Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. AP State Portal – Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government – Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (2011-12) & Statistical Abstract (2012–13). p. 139. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  150. Sumit Bhattacharjee. "IIM-V to begin with flagship programme in management". The Hindu.
  151. "Tirupati, Palakkad IITs open for admission". The Hindu. 25 June 2015. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  153. "Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies". Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  154. "JNTU-Kakinada". Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  155. "JNTU-Anantapur". Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  156. "SV Veterinary University".
  157. "About Vedic University".
  158. "NARL". National Atmospheric Research Laboratory. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  159. "IISER Tirupati". IISER Tirupati. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  160. "CTRI Rajahmundry".
  161. "IIOPR".
  163. "ccrh".
  164. "SHAR". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  165. "Chandrayaan 1". Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  166. "Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh". SAAP. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.

External links

General information
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/2/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.