Virus classification
Group: Group III (dsRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Amalgaviridae
  • Amalgavirus

Amalgaviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that has one genus: Amalgavirus. Members of both the family and the genus are referred to as amalgaviruses. There are currently four recognized species of the family: Blueberry latent virus,[1] Rhododendron virus A,[2] Southern tomato virus,[3] the type species of Amalgavirus, and Vicia cryptic virus M.[4] The family and genus are called amalga, from amalgam, due to the viruses possessing characteristics of both partitiviruses and totiviruses, indicating a likely genetic relation to those two families.[1][3] Members of this family infect plants and are transmitted vertically via seeds.[1] Their genomes are monopartite, about 3.5 kilobases in length,[2][3] and contain two partially overlapping open reading frames, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a putative capsid protein.[3][4]


It has been suggested that amalgaviruses have evolved via recombination between viruses with double-stranded and negative-strand RNA genomes.[5] Specifically, phylogenetic analyses have shown that the amalgavirus RdRps form a sister clade to the corresponding proteins of partitiviruses (Partitiviridae) which have segmented (bipartite) dsRNA genomes and infect plants, fungi and protists.[1][2][3][5] By contrast, the putative capsid protein of amalgaviruses is homologous to the nucleocapsid proteins of negative-strand RNA viruses of the genera Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and Tenuivirus.[5]


  1. 1 2 3 4 Martin, R. R.; Zhou, J; Tzanetakis, I. E. (2011). "Blueberry latent virus: An amalgam of the Partitiviridae and Totiviridae". Virus Research. 155 (1): 175–80. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2010.09.020. PMID 20888379.
  2. 1 2 3 Sabanadzovic, S; Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, N; Valverde, R. A. (2010). "A novel monopartite dsRNA virus from rhododendron". Archives of Virology. 155 (11): 1859–63. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0770-5. PMID 20721591.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Sabanadzovic, S; Valverde, R. A.; Brown, J. K.; Martin, R. R.; Tzanetakis, I. E. (2009). "Southern tomato virus: The link between the families Totiviridae and Partitiviridae". Virus Research. 140 (1-2): 130–7. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2008.11.018. PMID 19118586.
  4. 1 2 Liu, W; Chen, J (2009). "A double-stranded RNA as the genome of a potential virus infecting Vicia faba". Virus Genes. 39 (1): 126–31. doi:10.1007/s11262-009-0362-1. PMID 19472044.
  5. 1 2 3 Krupovic M, Dolja VV, Koonin EV (2015). "Plant viruses of the Amalgaviridae family evolved via recombination between viruses with double-stranded and negative-strand RNA genomes". Biol Direct. 10 (1): 12. doi:10.1186/s13062-015-0047-8. PMC 4377212Freely accessible. PMID 25886840.
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