|Alexander J. Cassatt|
Alexander Cassatt somewhere between 1890 and 1900
December 8, 1839|
December 28, 1906 67) (aged|
Church of the Redeemer Cemetery,|
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
|Known for||President of Pennsylvania Railroad|
|Spouse(s)||Lois Buchanan (1847–1920)|
Edward Buchanan (1869–1922)|
Katherine Kelso (1871–1905)
Robert Kelso (1873–1944)
Elsie Foster (1875–1931)
|Relatives||Mary Cassatt, sister|
|Honors||SS A. J. Cassatt|
Alexander Johnston Cassatt (December 8, 1839 – December 28, 1906) was the seventh president of the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR), serving from June 9, 1899 to December 28, 1906. The painter Mary Cassatt was his sister.
Frequently referred to as A. J. Cassatt, the great accomplishment under his stewardship was the planning and construction of tunnels under the Hudson River to finally bring PRR's trunk line into New York City. His purchase of a controlling interest in the Long Island Rail Road and the construction of tunnels under the East River created a PRR commuter network on Long Island. Unfortunately, Cassatt died before his grand Pennsylvania Station in New York City was completed.
Cassatt joined the PRR in 1861 as an engineer and rapidly rose through the ranks. He was a vice president in 1877 when the Pittsburgh Railway Riots broke out in 1877, and had become Pennsy First Vice-President by 1880.:326 He was disappointed to be passed over for the presidency and resigned from the company in 1882. During his absence he devoted his time to horse raising but still was able to organize a new railroad the New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk Railroad (NYP&N), that connected southern markets with the north. Despite no longer being an executive with PRR, he was elected to the PRR’s board of directors and was recalled in 1899 to serve as president.
Cassatt more than doubled the PRR's total assets during his term, from US$276 million to US$594 million (an increase of 115 percent). Track and equipment investment increased by 146 percent. The route from New York through Philadelphia, Harrisburg and Altoona to Pittsburgh was made double-tracked throughout; to Washington, DC, four-tracked—Pennsy's "Broad Way." Many other lines were double-tracked; almost every part of the system was improved. New freight cutoffs avoided stations; grade crossings were eliminated, flyovers were built to streamline common paths through junctions, terminals were redesigned, and much more. Cassatt initiated the Pennsy's program of electrification which led to the road being the United States' most electrified system.
Family and early life
Alexander Johnston Cassatt was born on December 8, 1839 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the eldest of seven children, the brother of Mary Cassatt born to Robert Simpson Cassat (later Cassatt), and Katherine Kelso Johnston.
The elder Cassatt, was a successful stockbroker and land speculator. He was descended from the French Huguenot Jacques Cossart, who came to New Amsterdam in 1662. Her mother, Katherine Kelso Johnston, came from a banking family. Katherine Cassatt, educated and very well read and it was said that it was Alexander who most resembled his mother in "appearance and temperament".:10
In 1856, he entered Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to study Civil Engineering where his senior thesis was entitled "Review of Pressure Turbine".:13 After graduating in the summer of 1859, Robert Cassatt took Alexander to see a former neighbor from Lancaster Pennsylvania, James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States. By the fall of the next year in 1860, Alexander had secured a position as a surveyor or rodman by the Georgia Railroad. By the time the State of Georgia voted to secede from the Union in January 1861, Cassatt had abandoned his work as surveyor on the Dalton-Knoxville line of the Georgia Railroad and returned to Pennsylvania without seeing any military service during the Civil War.:17
In the Spring of 1861, Cassatt had been hired as part of the Engineer Corps of the Pennsylvania Railroad, again as a rodman where he worked on the Connecting Railway.:17 It is unknown how Cassatt managed to avoid the Pennsylvania militia draft during the Union mobilization in this period but in 1864, Cassatt was transferred to Renovo, Pennsylvania as a resident engineer to work on the middle division of the Philadelphia and Erie railroad.:18 In 1866, Cassatt became Superintendent of motive power and machinery for the Oil Creek and Allegheny River Railway, recently reorganized in 1864 as the Warren and Franklin Railroad which was growing rapidly due to the discovery of oil in the region and coal mining.:19 In 1867, Cassatt was appointed as superintendent of motive power and machinery for the Pennsylvania railroad in Altoona with a salary of $3,000 per year ($2016=51,000) when a trainmen made less than $10 a week.:23
Sometime during Cassatt's tenure as Superintendent, He married Lois Buchanan, daughter of the Rev. Edward Y. Buchanan and Ann Eliza Foster. Lois Buchanan was a niece of James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States, and through her mother, a niece of songwriter Stephen Foster. The couple had two sons and two daughters.
A. J. Cassatt was a horse enthusiast and fox hunter who owned Chesterbrook Farm in Berwyn, Pennsylvania where he bred Thoroughbred racehorses. The 600-acre (240 ha) property is today the site of a subdivision with office buildings and homes using the Chesterbrook Farm name. The original main barn designed by Philadelphia architect Frank Furness has been maintained and restored. (Furness also designed Cassatt's Rittenhouse Square townhouse.)
Cassatt initially raced under the pseudonym, Mr. Kelso, and his horses as from the Kelso Stable. He owned the 1886 Preakness Stakes winner, The Bard and the 1889 Belmont Stakes 1889 winner Eric. As well, he bred the winner of the 1875, 1876, 1878, and 1880 Preakness Stakes and Foxford who won the 1891 Belmont.
In addition to flat-racing his Thoroughbreds, in 1895 A. J. Cassatt helped found the National Steeplechase Association to organize competitive steeplechase racing. He was also responsible for the introduction of the Hackney pony to the United States. In 1878 he acquired 239 Stella in Britain and brought her to Philadelphia. In 1891, Cassatt and several fellow Hackney enthusiasts founded the American Hackney Horse Society. The organization and registry continues to this day with its headquarters now in Lexington, Kentucky.
Alexander Cassatt died in 1906 at his Rittenhouse Square townhouse in Philadelphia, after a six-month illness.:279 He was interred in the Church of the Redeemer Cemetery in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. His widow died in 1920.:315
Gramercy Mansion in Baltimore, Maryland was built by Alexander Cassatt in 1902.
In 1910, the Pennsylvania Railroad erected a statue of Cassatt designed by Adolph Alexander Weinman at the new Pennsylvania Station, New York. The statue had the following inscription:
- "Alexander Cassatt Lived in Altoona; Brief History and Reminiscence of One of Pennsylvania Railroad's Presidents". Altoona Tribune. December 15, 1916. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- "Alexander J. Cassatt" (PDF). New York Times. June 18, 1899. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- Klein, Phillip; Hoogenboom, Ari (1980). A History of Pennsylvania. Penn State Press.
- Joseph S. Kennedy (January 12, 2003). "Pennsylvania Railroad came of age under legendary leader Alexander Johnston Cassatt…". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Davis, Patricia J. (1978). End of the line:Alexander Cassatt and the Pennsylvania Railroad. New York, NY: Neale Watson Academic Publications. p. 9.
- Rubinstein, Charlotte Streifer (1982). American women artists : from early Indian times to the present. Boston, Mass. u.a.: Hall u.a. ISBN 0816185352.
- Pollock 1998, pp. 281–82.
- "Niece of President Buchanan Dead". New York Times. April 25, 1906. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "Mr. A. J. Cassatt to retire" (PDF). Pittsburgh Post. October 21, 1889. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- Mathews, Nancy Mowll (1994). Mary Cassatt: A Life. New York: Villard Books. ISBN 0-300-07754-8.
- Staff (July 27, 1910). "Cassatt Statue in Station. The Only One to Stand in the New Pennsylvania Terminal Here". New York Times.
- Barksdale, Francis Nelson (July 1901). "Alexander Johnston Cassatt: Railroad President and Man of Affairs". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. II: 972–977. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
- Jacobs, Timothy. The History Of The Pennsylvania Railroad; Bison Books Group 1988; ISBN 0-517-63351-5, p. 78–88 The Cassatt years.
- Jonnes, Jill. Conquering Gotham: a Gilded Age epic: the construction of Penn Station and its tunnels; Penguin Books 2007; ISBN 0-670-03158-5.
- Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (2005), RPI: Alumni hall of fame: Alexander J. Cassatt. Retrieved February 22, 2005.
- White, John H., Jr. America's most noteworthy railroaders, Railroad History, Railway and Locomotive Historical Society, Spring 1986, 154, p. 9–15.
- Schmidt, David. "Chesterbrook retells the story of Wayne for the 20th century." Lower Merion Historical Society, Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.
- American Hackney Horse Society.
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