Alexander Hamilton (song)

"Alexander Hamilton"
Song by Leslie Odom Jr., Anthony Ramos, Daveed Diggs, Okieriete Onaodowan, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Phillipa Soo, Christopher Jackson, & the Cast of Hamilton from the album Hamilton
Released 2015
Length 3:56
Writer(s) Lin-Manuel Miranda
Composer(s) Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lyricist(s) Lin-Manuel Miranda
Language English
Hamilton track listing

"Alexander Hamilton"
Aaron Burr, Sir

"Alexander Hamilton" is the opening number for the 2015 musical Hamilton, a musical biography of American Founding Father Alexander Hamilton. This song features "alternately rapped and sung exposition".[1]


Lin-Manuel Miranda performs an early version of Alexander Hamilton at the White House Poetry Jam
Lin-Manuel Miranda performs an early version of the song at the White House poetry jam in 2009.

This song was originally part of a group of songs entitled "The Hamilton Mixtape" and created by Lin-Manuel Miranda as he started interpreting and adapting Ron Chernow's Hamilton biography for the stage. He performed this number live at a White House poetry jam in 2009. The National Review noted "The Obamas and the other guests react with more than a touch of surprise."[2] The New Yorker writes that "Miranda later heard that the President’s first reaction was to remark that Timothy Geithner had to see this."[3] The musical, and this song's YouTube video in particular, have had a huge impact in the education world; Miranda said “I think teachers used just that one clip for the past six years as their intro to Hamilton.”[4]

In February 2016, the song was performed live at the Grammys, the first time a song was broadcast live from a Broadway stage for the Hollywood award show. Billboard said they "wowed",[5] while TV Line deemed it "crowd-pleasing".[6] Billboard deemed it the night's 4th best live musical moment, writing "the emotional, enervating retelling of American history was one of the night's standout moments".[7] Rolling Stone also deemed it a highlight and wrote "It's not Hamilton's most compelling set piece, but it's a very solid introduction to the show's characters, cast and themes. For millions that won't be able to make it to Broadway this year, watching it performed on network TV was the next best thing to actually scoring a ticket."[8]


This song is expository, by setting up who the protagonist is, his relation to all other major characters, and summarising the first two decades of his life in a "bracingly economical synopsis of Hamilton’s early years".[9] This "prologue" to the story, according to Patheos, "doesn’t just bring Hamilton to life, but all of his contemporaries as well".[10]

The derogatory terms used in the number to describe Hamilton, including "bastard", "orphan", "son of a whore and a Scotsman" are repeated throughout the musical in a motif that demonstrates how his upbringing would haunt him for the rest of his life, despite his attempt to escape his childhood misfortunes and social climb. This term was "derived from a contemptuous description by John Adams".[3]

Prior to the musical's release, both Hamilton and Burr were best known for their infamous duel, in which Burr fatally shoots Hamilton. The opening number acknowledges this, essentially giving away the ending, so just like the musical Titanic, it becomes more about the journey than the destination.[11]


The Atlantic notes that the musical's opening question "“How does a bastard, orphan, son of a whore and a Scotsman, dropped in the middle of a forgotten spot in the Caribbean by providence, impoverished, in squalor grow up to be a hero and a scholar?" is answered throughout the following two acts, and essentially becomes "relentless labor", epitomised in Burr's rise to power, Hamilton's written documents, and Eliza's securing of Hamilton's legacy.[12]

Uloop argues that Burr is actually Hamilton's main character, writing that in this opening number "Lin portrays his Burr as one completely knowing of his crime to come, in the style of Jesus Christ Superstar’s Judas, and with the ferocity of Les MisJavert."[13]


The song has received critical acclaim. The Huffington Post argues that the song's wordplay and self-awareness elevates it above other opening numbers that rely on this "sung exposition" technique.[11] Pitchfork explains that the song sets the musical tone by incorporating rap while being "still essentially in musical-theater territory".[9] With Burr acting as the narrator of this number, The Los Angeles Times comments: "fitting, somehow, that the man who jealously slew Hamilton in a duel is the first to take up the mystery of his story".[14] Vulture was enamoured by how good the first song was and awaited the rest, exclaiming "My heart swelled with pride after I heard this song, because I was like, 'This right here is hip-hop.' Hip-hop has no boundaries and no limits, and Lin-Manuel and his crew are proving it".[15] Ricordia described it as "the anthem of a man that changed the world", and argued it should be the anthem of all listeners too.[16] Hitfix notes that the song's opening stanzas "have this sort of great simple stripped down quality, just demonstrating how dense the rhyme schemes are, and conveying a lot of information, including a reminder that Hamilton is a face we see every day and rarely consider.[17] Vibe wrote that the song has "booming instrumental, which features dramatic pauses and guitar strings".[18]


  1. Marcy Donelson. "Hamilton: An American Musical [Original Broadway Cast Recording]". AllMusic.
  2. "National Review Online". National Review Online. 6 April 2015.
  3. 1 2 Rebecca Mead (9 February 2015). "Hip-Hop Hamilton – The New Yorker". The New Yorker.
  4. "'Hamilton' Biggest Thing Broadway Being Taught Classrooms All Over" Newsweek
  5. "Hamilton Cast's 2016 Grammys Performance: Alexander Hamilton – Video – Billboard". Billboard.
  6. Kimberly Roots. "[VIDEO] 'Hamilton' Cast Performs 'Alexander Hamilton' at Grammys 2016 – TVLine". TVLine.
  7. "2016 Grammys Performances Ranked From Worst to Best". Billboard.
  8. "Grammys 2016: 20 Best and Worst Moments". Rolling Stone.
  9. 1 2 "Various Artists". Pitchfork.
  10. "Hamilton The Musical: An Album Review". Monique Ocampo Writes.
  11. 1 2 "I Have an Opinion on Every Song in "Hamilton"". The Huffington Post. 1 October 2015.
  12. Spencer Kornhaber. "Why the 'Hamilton' Cast Recording Is the Best Album of 2015 – The Atlantic". The Atlantic.
  13. "Hamilton Album Review: Starting a Revolution Pt. 2". Uloop.
  14. Los Angeles Times (4 November 2015). "Review: 'Hamilton' is a watershed musical that sets a Founding Father's tale to hip-hop – LA Times".
  15. "Talib Kweli Analyzes Hamilton – Vulture". Vulture.
  16. "Ricordia : Hamilton Soundtrack Review".
  17. "Hamilton slays at the Grammys as Lin-Manuel Miranda accepts an award in style". HitFix.
  18. "Going H.A.M.: A Track-By-Track Review Of The 'Hamilton' Soundtrack". Vibe.
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