In Ottoman musical theory, aksak is a rhythmic system in which pieces or sequences, executed in a fast tempo, are based on the uninterrupted reiteration of a matrix, which results from the juxtaposition of rhythmic cells based on the alternation of binary and ternary quantities, as in 2+3, 2+2+3, 2+3+3, etc. The name literally means "limping", "stumbling", or "slumping", and has been borrowed by Western ethnomusicologists to refer generally to irregular, or additive meters (Brăiloiu 1951; Fracile 2003, 198; Reinhard, Stokes, and Reinhard 2001, §II, 4).

In Turkish folk music, these metres occur mainly in vocal and instrumental dance music, though they are found also in some folksongs. Strictly speaking, in Turkish music theory the term refers only to the grouping of nine pulses into a pattern of 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 (Reinhard, Stokes, and Reinhard 2001, §II, 4).


Units Subdivisions
52+3 (türk aksağı [Bulg: Paidushko]), 3+2
72+2+3 (devr-i turan [Bulg. Račenica]), 3+2+2 (devr-i hindi (Bektaş 2005, 6–7) Bulg. Lesnoto) Četvorno, 2+3+2
92+2+2+3 (aksak [Bulg. Daychovo]), 3+2+2+2, 2+2+3+2
112+2+2+2+3, 2+2+3+2+2 (Bulg. Gankino)
132+2+2+2+2+3 (?Bulg. Elenino horo), 2+2+2+3+2+2 (?Bulg. Krivo Sadovsko horo)
152+2+2+2+3+2+2 (Bulg. Bučimiš)
183+2+2 + 2+2+3+2+2 (?Bulg. Jove male mome)
253+2+2 + 3+2+2 + 2+2+3 + 2+2 (?Bulg. Sedi donka)

In jazz

The aksak rhythm 2+2+2+3
is prominently featured in the jazz standard "Blue Rondo à la Turk" by Dave Brubeck (User 2015).

See also


Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/2/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.