Agham Kot

Agham Kot (Urdu: اگهم کوٹ ) or is located in Hyderabad District, Sindh, Pakistan.

It is also known as Agham. The Lohánas. Agham, or Agham-kot, lies about thirty miles south-east from Hyderabad, and though now almost forgotten, it was formerly a place of some consequence. Its position is not very easily identified, and the name is rarely introduced into the maps. In Lt. Burton’s it seems to be entered under the name of "Angoomanoo," and in the Quartermaster-General’s map of 1850, under that of "Aghamama."The Beg-Lar Náma says it is on the Rain. The Tuhfatu-l Kirám mentions it among the towns on the Sánkra. Capt. McMurdo says it is on the Lohána Daryá; but he strangely fixes its site at Kalákot, seven miles to the west of Thatta.[1]


It is also called Agham Lohana. In the Chach-nama, we find frequent mention of a chief under that name, who was governor of Brahmanabad in the time of Chach. Lohana is the designation of a powerful tribe, which at that period, under an apparent confusion of terms, is said to have included both the Samma and Lakha clans. It can merely mean that they were then in a position of comparative subordination. Under all the vicissitudes the Lohanas have under- gone, they still retain their credit, as well as their religion, and constitute the most influential tribe in Sind, whether regarded as merchants or officials. But, not confined within that narrow province, they have spread their ramifications beyond the western borders of India, and are found dispersed throughout Afghanistan, Buluchistan, and Arabia, exposed to inconveniences, insults, and dangers of no ordinary kind, in pursuit of their darling object of wealth, and final return to their native soil to enjoy the fruits of their industry.[2]
As the town of Agham is mentioned as early as the time of Muhammad Bin Qasim, we may presume that it derived its name from the Lohana chieftain above-mentioned, who was the contemporary and opponent of Ohach.

"The Downfall of Sindh."

The Tdrikh-i TdUri (p. 51) refers this chronogram to the period when Shah Husain plundered Thatta, on the ground of extravagant joy having been evinced by its inhabitants upon the death of his father, Shah Beg; but this is evidently a mistake, and is adopted merely to accommodate his false chronology.
It is being considered that the famous ruler of Iran Nadir Shah or some say it Madad Shah raided the great state of Agham Kot and then they came to end. But in Chach-nama it is clearly written that Maharaja Chach raided Agham Kot and married widow of Maharaja Agham Luhana and aghamano near gulab laghari district badin.also wataya faqir and his mother live in agham kot or madad ali pathan ne ag di thi.

The Death of Shah Beg Aryhun

Authorities differ greatly respecting the time and place of Shah Beg's death. The Tarldtan-nama states that it occurred in Sha'ban, 926 H., not far from Chanduka, said in the Tdrilch-i Stud (MS. p. 196) to be thirty kos west of Bhakkar, and that the accession of Mirza Shah Husain was celebrated where Shah Bog died.

Ffrishta says he died in 930 n., but mentions no place.

Mir Ma'sum (MS. p. 154) says, he died after leaving Bhakkar, on his way to Gujrat, in the same page Agham is the particular spot implied and that the words Shahr-SJia'Mii (" month of Sha'ban ") represent the date of his death, i.e. 9 928 ir. (1522 A.D.). That very night, he adds, Shah Husain was proclaimed his successor, and, three years afterwards, Shah Beg's coffin wan convoyed to Mecca, where a lofty tomb was erected over it. He mentions (MS. p. 171) that Shah Husain's succession took place at Nawrpur, though he has previously led us to suppose it was Agham.

The Tdrtth-i Tdhthrt (MS. p. 49) says that his death took place in 924 n. "some say it occurred in Multan, some in Kandahar."

The Tuhfatu-l Kiram (MS. p. 42) states that he died at Agham on the 23rd of Sha'ban, 928 ir. It is mentioned that work also, that this month represents tho date of his death. Tho author gives satis- factory reasons why the reports just quoted from tho Tdrikh-i Tdluri must necessarily be both incorrect.

Under those conflicting evidences, we may rust JiBsurred that the chronogram is correct, and that Shah Beg Arghun, the conqueror of Sind, died at Agham, on the 23rd of the month Sha'bun, 928 A, II. (18 July 1522 A.D.)[3]

Prince Agham

Main article: Agham Lohana

"Prince Agham" was the ruler of Brahmanabad. Further nothing is found about him in the history. Chach Of Alor battled Prince Agham and defeated him and became governor of Brahmanabad. Then he married widow of Prince Agham.[4] [5][6]

Present Aghams

Nowadays Aghams, the descendants of Maharaja Agham live at different places in Sindh. One of those places is Village Jumo Khan Agham, a small city located about 4 kilometers from Ratodero. The compiler of this article Arsalan Jabbar Abro also belongs to Village Jumo Khan Agham.


  1. "History of India". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  2. Rashid, S. (1992). Riders on the Wind: Travels Through Pakistan. Sang-e-Meel Publications. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  3. "Full text of "The History Of India.Vol-I"". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  4. Elliot, H.M. (1867). The History of India, as told by its own historians. The Muhammedan period. p. 362. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  5. "Sindh the Archiolocigal Museum of the world". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  6. Denis Larionov & Alexander Zhulin. "Read the eBook History of mediæval Hindu India (being a history of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.) .. (Volume 1) by Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya online for free (page 16 of 38)". Retrieved 9 September 2015.

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