Advanced Idea Mechanics
(Advanced Idea Mechanics, or Avengers Idea Mechanics)
|First appearance||Strange Tales #146 (July 1966)|
Stan Lee (writer)|
Jack Kirby (artist)
|Type of organization||
The organization that would become known as A.I.M. was originally known as THEM, and was first mentioned in Strange Tales #142 (March 1966) and was created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. THEM was first depicted in Tales of Suspense #78 (June 1966). Soon after that, the organization would change its name to A.I.M., which first appeared in Strange Tales #146 (July 1966).
A.I.M. is an organization of brilliant scientists and their hirelings dedicated to the acquisition of power and the overthrow of all world governments by technological means. Its leadership traditionally consisted of the seven-member Board of Directors (formerly known as the Imperial Council) with a rotating chairperson. Under the Directors are various division supervisors, and under them are the technicians and salesmen/dealers.
The organization supplies arms and technology to various terrorist and subversive organizations both to foster a violent technological revolution and to make a profit. A.I.M. operatives are usually involved in research, development, manufacturing, and sales of high technology. Members of A.I.M. are required to at least have a master's degree, if not a Ph.D, in some area of science, mathematics, or business.
A.I.M.'s reach is worldwide, including various front organizations such as Targo Corporation, International Data Integration and Control, and Cadenza Industries. A.I.M. has also operated under some other fronts including Koenig and Strey, Pacific Vista Laboratories, and Omnitech.
A.I.M. has had a number of bases of operations, including a nuclear submarine mobile in the Atlantic Ocean; a base in the Bronx, New York; Black Mesa, Colorado; West Caldwell, New Jersey; Asia, Canada, Europe, Haiti, India, Sudan and Boca Caliente (also known as AIM Island), an island republic in the Caribbean.
A.I.M. has created three major implements of deadly potential which stand far above the rest of their accomplishments. The greatest of these was the Cosmic Cube, a device capable of altering reality. A.I.M. did not realize that they had only manufactured the cubical containment device; the real power was an entity accidentally drawn into this dimension. The Cosmic Cube eventually evolved into Kubik. The second was the Super-Adaptoid, an android capable of mimicking the appearance and superpowers of other beings. The Super-Adaptoid's powers were made possible by incorporating a sliver of the Cosmic Cube into its form. When Kubik repossessed the sliver after defeating the Adaptoid, the android was rendered inanimate. A.I.M.'s third achievement was the creation of MODOK (Mental Organism Designed Only for Killing), an artificially mutated human with an enormous head and corresponding massive computational brain, and psionic abilities. MODOK was originally an ordinary AIM scientist who was selected by A.I.M.'s leader at the time, the Scientist Supreme, to be the subject of the bionic and genetic experiments that turned him into MODOK. After his transformation, MODOK killed the Scientist Supreme and took control of A.I.M., and later took advantage of the organizational chaos following the destruction of Hydra Island and the deaths of Baron Strucker and most of Hydra's leading members to sever A.I.M.'s ties with Hydra.
A.I.M.'s level of technology is as highly advanced as any on Earth, and its scientists have also built various cyborgs, robots, and androids; its agents utilize a variety of submarines, hovercraft, jets, etc. A.I.M. has also attempted to recreate versions of MODOK, including transforming Dr. Katherine Waynesboro into Ms. MODOK and creating SODAM (later revamped as MODAM). Since A.I.M's redirection as an exotic arms dealer, its members have access to whatever exotic weaponry is available in its warehouses.
A.I.M.'s leaders traditionally wear yellow three-piece business suits. Technical supervisors wear yellow jumpsuits, skull-caps, and goggles. However, the organization is renowned for the 'beekeeper'-looking helmets and NBC suit uniform of its underlings since the first appearance.
The Livewires member named Cornfed wears an A.I.M. uniform. He also wears a button referencing "The Real A.I.M".
Fictional organization history
A.I.M.'s origins began late in World War II with Baron Wolfgang von Strucker's creation of his subversive organization Hydra. Under the code name of Them, he created two Hydra branches called Advanced Idea Mechanics and Secret Empire. A.I.M.'s purpose was to develop advanced weaponry for Hydra. They were close to developing and attaining nuclear weapons when Hydra Island was invaded by American and Japanese troops. Although Hydra suffered a major setback, it survived and grew in secret over the following decades.
A.I.M. has had numerous encounters with various superheroes and supervillains, and is the subject of ongoing undercover investigations by S.H.I.E.L.D.. It was responsible for reviving the Red Skull from suspended animation. An A.I.M. android factory in a Florida swamp was once raided by S.H.I.E.L.D., which also involved Count Bornag Royale in a weapons deal negotiation with S.H.I.E.L.D. A.I.M. then raided S.H.I.E.L.D.'s New York City headquarters. As a result of these events, Royale was discredited, and A.I.M.'s headquarters was destroyed.
A.I.M. employed Batroc the Leaper to recover an explosive compound called Inferno 42 and dispatched a chemical android against Nick Fury and Captain America. A.I.M. also dispatched their special agent the Cyborg against Captain America. A.I.M. was involved in a skirmish with the Maggia and its "Big M". A.I.M. has also captured Iron Man in an attempt to analyze and replicate his armor. A.I.M. was responsible for transforming Betty Ross briefly into the gamma-irradiated Harpy. A.I.M. dispatched their special agent the Destructor to capture Ms. Marvel.
For a time, a schism developed within A.I.M., causing it to split into the Blue and Yellow factions. These factions battled each other, employing Deathbird as an operative. A.I.M. captured the Thing and Namor to test the Virus X on them. The Blue faction later made an attempt to recapture the Cosmic Cube. A second battle occurred between the rival factions, but factions no longer seem to be active within A.I.M.
A.I.M. eventually hired the Serpent Society to kill MODOK, which they did. A.I.M. was responsible for a jet attack on the West Coast Avengers compound and then took over Boca Caliente and unleashed a microbe aboard the Stark space satellite. A.I.M. also sent an agent to attempt to confiscate the quantum-bands given to Quasar.
The organization was revealed to have become a 'techno-anarchist' group, with no connection to Hydra, and even a hatred for fascism. With the introduction of the Death's Head 3.0 character, a pacifist future version of the organization is promised, with a surprise character as leader.
A.I.M. was revealed to be behind the pocket dimension of Earth-13584 by using a sliver of time they obtained to alter certain events so they can obtain the technology and science from various individuals. They did this by exploiting the fluid nature of time brought on by the manipulations of Kang the Conqueror traveling back to alter the past. This lasted until the Dark Avengers ended up in this reality causing it to collapse. The Dark Avengers were able to get out before the pocket dimension collapsed.
After the Secret Avengers recruited Taskmaster after freeing him from Bagalia, they send him to infiltrate the new High Council of A.I.M. which consists of Andrew Forson, Graviton, Jude the Entropic Man, Mentallo, Superia, and Yelena Belova. Andrew Forson then leads A.I.M. into attending a weapons expo which led to A.I.M. fighting against the Secret Avengers. During the battle, Andrew Forson takes the opportunity to steal the Iron Patriot armor.
Daisy Johnson launched an unsanctioned operation to send the Secret Avengers to A.I.M. Island to assassinate Forson, and they seemingly killed him. Johnson ended up suspended for breaking protocol and Maria Hill is put in charge of S.H.I.E.L.D. again. As Forson was revealed to be alive all along, the news of A.I.M. being a new permanent member of the Security Council is known.
Using an as-yet-unidentified device in the pages of Avengers World, Andrew Forson and A.I.M. accelerate the flow of time within the limits of A.I.M. Island creating in a matter of hours for the real world year of progress and transforming A.I.M. into a technologically advanced empire.
Avengers Idea Mechanics
During the Time Runs Out storyline which takes place eight months in the future, Sunspot reveals that he bought A.I.M and used their resources to investigate the incursions. Sunspot reveals the group was much easier to deal with after much of higher management had been fired. Many heroes working in Sunspot's branch of the Avengers such as Thor and Hyperion, also find themselves working side by side with A.I.M. Once they managed to create a machine to propel individuals across the Multiverse some of the heroes who were helping A.I.M. offered themselves to participate in a one-way trip to find the origin of the Incursions threatening all reality.
As part of the All-New, All-Different Marvel, it was revealed that the A.I.M. members that fled when Sunspot bought out A.I.M. had been taken in by Maker where they work for his organization W.H.I.S.P.E.R. (short for World Headquarters for Internation Scientific Philosophical Experimentation and Research) as his personal tool to reshape the world.
Over time, some AIM splinter cells have appeared:
- Advanced Ideas in Destruction (AID)
- Radically Advanced Ideas in Destruction' (RAID) – AIM-like company, designed exoskeleton, forced to help Captain America track the Cosmic Cube
- Advanced Genocide Mechanics (AGM) – Located in the Congo. Led by MODOG (Mental Organism Designed Only for Genocide).
- Adarco Corporation (Advanced Robotic Company) – A company that developed Annex and BREW technology.
- Dr. Hillman Barto – Ally of Annex. He is currently deceased
- Brace – A cyborg. Destroyed by Annex
- Cadence Industries – Entertainment Media company that collected the corpse of MODOK
- IDIC (International Data Integration and Control) –
- Diadem (Lucieane D'Hiven) –
- Kenjiro Tanaka' – – A former S.H.I.E.L.D. agent who trained alongside Wendell Vaughn. He infiltrated IDIC and stayed on as employee after the break-up of S.H.I.E.L.D. He later left to join Vaughn Securities, and was promoted to partner and eventual CEO due to Vaughan spending less time on Earth.
- Koenig and Strey – It is based in Manhattan. It was invaded by Bullseye, Deadpool, Juggernaut, Sabretooth, and Vulture on behalf of Valeria Jessup.
- Omnitech –
- Targo Corporation –
- Alessandro Brannex (Super-Adaptoid) – An android and Chairman of the Board.
- Monica Rappaccini – Mother of Carmilla Black, Scientist Supreme, and an Italian national. She has a Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Padua. She became a radical, developed poisons for the Black Orchestra and AIM. Monica sought to reestablish contact with her daughter.
- George Tarleton (MODOK) – Former A.I.M. scientist and current leader of A.I.M. under the rank of Scientist Supreme. He was mutated by George Clinton and driven insane by energies present at the creation of Earth's first Cosmic Cube. Also known as Mental Organism Designed Only for Killing, MODOC, Mental Organism Designed Only for Computation. Father of Head Case (Sean Madigan)
High Council of A.I.M.
- Andrew Forson – The Supreme Leader of the High Council of A.I.M.
- Graviton – The Minister of Science.
- Jude the Entropic Man – The Minister of Health.
- Mentallo – The Minister of Public Affairs.
- Superia – The Minister of Education.
- Taskmaster – The Minister of Defense (undercover for the Secret Avengers).
- Yelena Belova – The Minister of State.
- George Clinton – Former Scientist Supreme. He was involved in creation of MODOC/MODOK and the Cosmic Cube. His mind was eventually drained by the Red Skull, Arnim Zola, and Hate-Monger (a clone of Adolf Hitler) in an attempt to recreate the Cosmic Cube.
- Chet Madden – Former head of A.I.M. and former client of Connie Ferrari.
- Dr. Lyle Getz – A former Scientist Supreme. He is currently deceased.
- Head Case (Sean Madigan) – The son of MODOK.
- Maxwell Mordius – Currently deceased
- Valdemar Tykkio – Scientist Supreme. He instituted a takeover of Boca Caliente. He is the brother of Yorgon Tykkio.
- Wolfgang von Strucker (Baron Strucker) – A Nazi and also the founder of Hydra
Members and agents
- AD-45 Riot-Bots
- Abu-Jamal Rodriguez –
- Alexandre Copernicus –
- Andrew Ritter –
- Arthur Shaman – hypnotist, kidnapped Michael Barnett and attempted to force the Hulk to kill Ms. Marvel
- B'Tumba – A Wakandan who is the son of N'Baza, and an old friend of T'Challa. He allied with AIM to sell Vibranium. B'Tumba eventually sacrificed his life to save T'Challa from A.I.M.
- Baron Rolando Samedi – created pseudo-zuvembies.
- Bernard Worrell – – Member of AIM's Blue Faction; former apprentice of George Clinton; led capture of Cosmic Cube/Kubik but was unable to control it once it began its metamorphosis into Kubik
- Betty Sumitro
- Brace –
- Brendon Newton –
- Cache – artificial intelligence.
- Carl Alexis Lombardi – A.I.M. agent, sought Uni-Power, slew David Garrett when he had outlived his usefulness, confessed after captured by Daredevil
- Clete Billups – Infiltrated S.H.I.E.L.D.; revealed himself and killed his "partners" in order to steal the body of Protocide, he was duped by Captain America and Sharon Carter into leading them to the AIM headquarters.
- Clytemnestra Erwin – infiltrated Stark Enterprises to gain revenge on Tony Stark for causing the death of her brother Morley. Killed by an out-of-control A.I.M. missile.
- Commander Robert Cypher – Sought technology to take control of nuclear missiles
- Count Bornag Royale –
- Cyborg – hired assassin
- David Garrett – ally of A.I.M., funded Gilbert Wiles to monitoring his tracking of the Uni-Power, slain by Lombardi after outliving usefulness
- Destructor (Kerwin Korman) – former premier weapons-maker, stumbled on and unleashed the power core of Kree Psyche-Magnitron, later built into Doomsday Man by AIM technicians and used as its power source, discovered and freed by Avengers, required continued connection to remnants of Doomsday Man for life support.
- Doctor Nemesis (Michael Craig Stockton) –
- Doomsday Man – virtually indestructible robot created by Dr. Kronton in order to steal cobalt bomb and blackmail the USA, initially defeated by Silver Surfer, later revived by Kree Psyche-Magnitron, battled and destroyed by Ms. Marvel, rebuilt by AIM and merged with Kerwin Korman, whom it used as a power source, battled Avengers, sought Warbird as replacement when Kerwin began to weaken, destroyed by Justice, remnants used as life support for Korman.
- Dr. Cristiano Ryder – posed as a S.H.I.E.L.D. agent to regain control of Android X-4.
- Dr. Ralph Rider – – brother of Charles Rider, uncle of Rich and Robert Rider, leading research scientist until killed by Photon
- Evelyn Necker – Earth-8410 liaison
- Fixer (Paul Norbert Ebersol) –
- Grizzly – A.I.M. agent R-1, used by MODOK in a plot to capture atomic scientist Paul Fosgrave; not to be confused with the Spider-Man enemy or Cable's deceased teammate.
- Harness (Erika Benson) – mother of Piecemeal; forced him to locate and absorb the energy of Proteus; wore an armored exo-skeleton.
- Harold Bainbridge - An A.I.M. Agent that Mockingbird impersonated during the Secret Avengers' raid on A.I.M. Island.
- Highwayman – English criminal, agent of A.I.M., attempted to steal the Cognium Steel from Oracle INC. but was defeated by Iron Fist.
- Hyun Rahman –
- Ian Fitzpatrick (Mr. Jinx)
- James Hendrickson
- Jason Rilker –
- Jethro Prufrock – father of George and Martha Prufock, was a perennial right-wing Libertarian candidate for President and a staunch advocate of arms-stockpiling; he was slain by a mutated George
- Julia Black – adoptive mother of Carmilla Black, former ties to Symbionese Liberation Army, currently deceased
- Lifeform (George Prufrock) – was mutated into a progressively larger carnivorous creature by exposure to experimental virus developed by his father, Jethro Prufock, at A.I.M.
- MODAM (Olinka Barankova) – Also known as Mobile Organism Designed for Aggressive Maneuvers who operated under "Maria Pym" and SODAM. Killed by MODOK
- Marc Planck –
- Mentallo (Marvin Flumm)
- Njeri Damphousse – currently still with AIM
- Paul Allen – He infiltrated S.H.I.E.L.D. His current whereabouts are unknown.
- Peggy Park –
- Professor Aaron Whyte –
- Ramona Starr – shot Ka-Zar in the head and then forced him to perform a mission for AIM; also known as Ramona Courtland
- Red Skull (Johann Schmidt) –
- Seekers –
- Solemne Brannex – Possibly the sister of Allesandro Brannex, sought aid from S.H.I.E.L.D. when AIM obtained a Shi'ar vessel
- Super-Adaptoid – A robot that can copy the powers of anyone.
- Timekeeper – scientist and leader of an AIM outpost in Venture Ridge, Wyoming; he attempted to tap into the power of Holly-Ann Ember
- Timothy Black – adoptive father of Carmilla Black, former ties to Symbionese Liberation Army, currently deceased
- Ultra-Adaptoid – A stronger version of Super-Adaptoid.
- Victorius (Victor Conrad)
- Wakers – AIM deep penetration agents under the leadership of Scorpion (Carmilla Black) and 4 others, genetically engineered to resist all chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons
- Warbot – AIM weapon, used by Arthur Shaman to capture the Hulk to use against Ms. Marvel, destroyed by her
- Yorgon Tykkio – brother of Valdemar; became a cyborg and led a revolt against his brother's rule; controlled the body of MODOK and destroyed it after he was defeated in battle against Iron Man; allied with Clytemnestra Erwin against Tony Stark/Iron Man; was killed by Clytemnestra when she was attempting to flee from him
2020 Death's Head Future
A future (2020) version of A.I.M was featured heavily in the Marvel UK limited series Death's Head II. This future organisation created the cyborg Minion, which was later taken over by the personality of Death's Head. A.I.M's representative Evelyn Necker became a popular character in the ongoing series that followed.
In Amazing Fantasy ##16–20, set further in the same future, A.I.M is on the point of making peace with the UN, when a renegade AIM scientist unleashes Death's Head 3.0 on the peace conference.
House of M
In the Marvel Adventures version of Iron Man, AIM, through the use of dummy companies, acquired Stark International's hover platform and uni-beam technology in their invasion of Madripoor, a third world country. Gia-Bao Yinsen tried to tell the world about AIM's terrorist attacks on his country. However, his message is dismissed. During Tony Stark's test of his new solar-powered glider, AIM causes Tony to crash on their artificial island. Tony's heart is damaged, and AIM force him to build an EMP weapon to allow A.I.M.'s forces to finish their conquest of Madripoor. In exchange, AIM will repair his heart. Tony learns that Yinsen was also kidnapped, as A.I.M. wanted to prevent him from telling the world about their attacks on his country and to use his intellect to build technology for AIM. Similar to Iron Man's main Marvel Universe origin, Yinsen and Tony both build armor to escape. However, Yinsen destroys the generator powering the island in order to save his homeland. The explosion kills Yinsen, but Tony Stark lives. Tony becomes Iron Man to prevent people like AIM from committing evil against innocents. Here, the Supreme Scientist is a black-haired woman who is extremely brilliant. In addition, the uniforms that AIM uses are basically NBC orange suits. However, the Supreme Scientist wears black clothing in a style similar to Darth Vader.
In the Ultimate Marvel world, the AIM commissioned the Ultimate Mad Thinker to steal Cerebro from the Ultimate X-Men and frame the Ultimate Fantastic Four, as seen in the Ultimate X4 mini-series. Ultimate AIM's full purpose and function has yet to be revealed. The mini-series Ultimate Vision introduces AIM as composed of several directorates spread across the globe, with George Tarleton as an AIM leader on an orbital research facility. Tarleton and his team attempted to take control of a Gah Lak Tus module that was left behind in orbit after the swarm was driven away. Being unable to do so on their own, they lured Vision to the station to help them by claiming they would use the knowledge to order the Gah Lak Tus swarm to self-destruct. Once the cyborg Tarleton had connected to the module using Vision, he had the module fire an energy beam at her. Tarleton then incorporated the Gah Lak Tus' circuitry into his own body, but it has seemingly taken him over, transforming him more into a machine, with a monstrous appearance. He has since taken over the entire station remotely and has set it to plummet out of orbit, along with the Gah Lak Tus module, which he says has "unfinished business on Earth." Ultimately Tarleton was broken free of the module's control and helped the Vision and the Falcon aka Dr. Samuel Wilson in destroying the module.
In Ultimate Comics: Avengers, a group of A.I.M. terrorists stole advanced technology (revealed to be blueprints for a Cosmic Cube) from the Baxter Building and have some associations with the Red Skull.
In other media
- Although unnamed, some A.I.M. agents made a cameo in the Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends episode "The X-Men Adventure".
- A.I.M. also appear in some episodes of the 1994 Iron Man animated series' second season, during which the sabotage that killed Howard Stark in the first season episode "The Origin of Iron Man". Although it was hinted to be caused by Justin Hammer, it is later revealed as having been caused by A.I.M.. A.I.M. shows up periodically throughout the series.
- A.I.M. appear in Iron Man: Armored Adventures episodes "Ready, A.I.M., Fire", "Panther's Prey", "Designed Only For Chaos", "Uncontrollable", and "Titanium vs. Iron".
- A.I.M. appears in The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes episodes "The Breakout" Pt. 1, "Everything is Wonderful", "Widow's Sting", "Hail Hydra", "Alone Against A.I.M.", "Prisoner of War", and "Secret Invasion".
- A.I.M. has been reference in Marvel Anime:
- In Marvel Anime: Iron Man, the Zodiac has a connection with A.I.M. as they built the Zodiac's robots.
- In Marvel Anime: Wolverine, some A.I.M. Agents are shown chasing Tesshin Asano as Wolverine arrives slaying the A.I.M. Agents. Shingen Yashida is shown to have connections with A.I.M. as his Kuzuryu organization is their supplier. A.I.M. was also shown to have a stealth ship where Omega Red is taken after he was badly wounded by Wolverine. A.I.M. is responsible for constructing the robot Vadhaka for Shingen Yashida and Hideki Kurohagi in a plot to eliminate Wolverine.
- A.I.M. appears on a recurring basis on Avengers Assemble.
- A.I.M. appears in Iron Man: Rise of Technovore. In the film, the group is hired by Ezekiel Stane and Sasha Hammer to develop a techno-organic virus named Technovore.
- A.I.M. appears in the 2013 film Iron Man 3. The organization, re-imagined as a government-sanctioned, privately funded think-tank, was founded by Aldrich Killian. In the film, A.I.M. is the developer of the Extremis virus and was also hired to design the Iron Patriot armor.
- A.I.M. Troopers and A.I.M. Attack Bots appear in the video game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance with the A.I.M. Troopers voiced by Steven Blum.
- A.I.M. appears in the Iron Man video game. They are seen working with Obadiah Stane to try to develop an army of Iron Men based on Tony Stark's original suit, with him taking out Dreadnoughts, and AIM agents the Controller, and the Melter. Although their attempts to develop an effective power source fail, they are able to create the Titanium Man armor, but this version requires regular recharging during a fight allowing Iron Man to defeat it. Iron Man then destroys A.I.M.'s attempt to acquire satellite power sources to boost their strength.
- A.I.M. appears in the PlayStation 2 and PSP version of Spider-Man: Web of Shadows.
- A.I.M. agents appear as foot soldiers in the Marvel Super Hero Squad video game voiced by Travis Willingham, Nolan North, and Troy Baker.
- A.I.M. appears in the video game adaption to Iron Man 2 with its agents voiced by Catherine Campion, Andrew Chaikin, Denny Delk, Eric Goldberg, Adam Harrington, and Roger L. Jackson. They are shown working with Kearson DeWitt in collaboration with Roxxon to perfect the Ultimo Program.
- A.I.M. (alongside their R.A.I.D. branch) appears in Marvel: Avengers Alliance. Known members of A.I.M. are Crimson Dynamo, MODOK, and Vulture. A.I.M.'s foot soldiers consist of A.I.M. Administrators, A.I.M. Directors, A.I.M. Firefighters, A.I.M. Managers, A.I.M. Safety Officer, and A.I.M. Scientist, and R.A.I.D.'s foot soldiers consist of R.A.I.D. Biotechnicians, R.A.I.D. Bioterrorists, R.A.I.D. Guards, R.A.I.D. Physicists, and R.A.I.D. Sub-Commanders. A.I.M. also has an Exoskeletal Battletank which is the latest in stolen Stark Industries technology that was incorporated into A.I.M.'s armament program.
- A.I.M. appears in Iron Man 3 (the video game adaptation to the film of the same name). They are led by M.O.D.O.K. (here being Aldrich Killian having his mind downloaded into MODOK's body after his death in the film), and having General Valentin Shatalov (aka Crimson Dynamo), Ezekiel Stane, and Living Laser as A.I.M. recruits.
- A.I.M. appears in Marvel Heroes, led by M.O.D.O.K. and is shown working with the Wizard and Doctor Octopus.
- A.I.M. Agents appear in Lego Marvel Super Heroes.
- A.I.M. will appear in the Marvel Universe: LIVE! arena show.
- Members of A.I.M. appear in issue five of The Avengers: United They Stand comic series.
- Tales of Suspense #93–94
- origin revealed in Captain America #133
- Hulk #190
- Solo Avengers #14–16
- Quasar #8
- Tales of Suspense #79
- Strange Tales #146
- Strange Tales #147
- Strange Tales #149
- Tales of Suspense #75–76
- Tales of Suspense #78
- Captain America #124
- Iron Man and Sub-Mariner #1
- Iron Man #1
- Hulk #167–168
- Ms. Marvel #2
- Ms. Marvel #7–10
- Marvel Two-In-One #81–82
- Captain America Annual #7
- Hulk #289
- Captain America #313
- Iron Man #201
- Iron Man #207–208
- Iron Man #215
- Quasar #1
- the Scorpion: Poison Tomorrow arc of Amazing Fantasy
- Incredible Hulk #600
- Dark Avengers vol. 2 #190
- Secret Avengers Vol. 2 #2
- Secret Avengers #3
- Secret Avengers Vol. 2 #5
- Avengers World #1
- Avengers Vol 5 #35
- Avengers Vol 5 #36
- Avengers Vol. 6 #0
- Captain America vol. 5
- Captain America vol. 5 #13
- Captain America vol. 5 #17
- Invincible Iron Man #1
- Amazing Spider-Man Annual #27
- Amazing Spider-Man Annual #26
- Annex #4
- Annex #1
- Captain America #315
- Master of Kung Fun #102
- Master of Kung Fu #102
- Quasar #5
- Identity Disc #2
- Iron Man vol. 3 #44
- Iron Man vol. 1 #207
- Quasar #9
- Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #7
- Tales of Suspense #93
- Fantastic Four #610
- Captain America #133
- Captain America vol. 3 #35
- Ms. Marvel vol. 2 #13
- Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos #5
- Captain America vol. 3 #13
- Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #8
- Uncanny X-Men #352
- Sabretooth & Mystique #1
- Defenders #57
- Avengers #87
- Strange Tales #171
- Captain America vol. 3 #33
- Captain Universe/Hulk #1
- Captain America vol. 3 #25
- Iron Man #171
- Iron Man #200–216
- Strange Tales vol. 1 #146
- Marvel Feature #9
- Ms Marvel #3
- Captain America #127
- Nova #12
- Death's Head II #1
- Strange Tales #141
- Captain America #120
- New Mutants Annual #7
- Secret Avengers Vol. 2 #8
- Marvel Comics Presents #137
- Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #11
- ClanDestine #9
- Punisher Annual #3
- Captain America vol.3 #3
- Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #11
- Astonishing Tales #8
- Marvel Holiday Special 2006
- Ka-Zar the Savage #18
- Captain America Comics #1
- Marvel Comics Presents #174
- Iron Man Annual #4
- Tales of Suspense #82
- Marvel Graphic Novel #16: Aladdin Effect
- Super-Villain Team-Up: MODOK's 11 #2
- Astonishing Tales #18 (Jun 1973)
- Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #10
- Iron Man #216
- Captain America #6
- The Incredible Hulk #83
- Ultimate X4
- Ultimate Vision #3
- Ultimate Vision #5
- Ultimate Avengers #3
- Ultimate Avengers #5
- "Iron Man 3: Under the Armor with Guy Pearce". Marvel.com. March 22, 2013. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
- Wheatley, Chris. "Marvel Universe LIVE! Reveals Villain Characters". IGN.
- A.I.M at Marvel.com