Administrative divisions of Mongolia during Qing

During of the Qing rule of Mongolia, Mongolia (it is understood in broader historical sense here) was generally administered as Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia; additional Mongol-inhabited regions were directly administered by the Qing dynasty.

The estate of the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu, the Great Shabi (from Mongolian shabi = disciple) would from 1723 on be independent from the four aimags, in the sense that its subjects would be exempt from most taxes and corvees. The shabi did - except the three Darkhad otog in Khövsgöl - not have an own territory. Rather, its subjects would mostly live among the general population. The shabi was led by a Shanzav or Shanzobda, and divided into otog, and then bag and arvan. Similar shabis would exist for other high lamas.[1]

Regions under direct control

The Direct-controlled Mongols (Chinese: 內屬蒙古) were banners (khoshuu) controlled by provinces, generals and ambasa.The following regions were directly controlled by the Manchu:

Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia[2] 's original 24 Aimags were torn apart and replaced by 49 banners (khoshuus) which would later be organized into six leagues (chuulgans, assemblys). The eight Chakhar banners and the two Tümed banners around Guihua were directly administered by the Manchu.

Outer Mongolia (Khalkha)

The Khalkha aimags were preserved - with the notable exception of the establishment of Sain Noyan aimag in 1725. Each aimag would also have a chigulgan, usually named after the place (mountains or rivers) where it convened. The aimags were divided into banners - whose number increased from originally eight to finally 86 - and further into sums.[3] A sum would consist of 150 men fit for military service, a bag of 50.[4] A military governor would be installed in Uliastai, and two civil governors (amban) in Khüree and in Kobdo.

Tannu Uriankhai

Western Hetao Mongolia

Other Mongolian Banners


30 khoshuu

Qinghai Mongols


13 banners (in modern-day Xinjiang)


  1. C.R.Bawden, The Modern History of Mongolia, London 1968, p. 106f
  2. Michael Weiers (editor) Die Mongolen. Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und Kultur, Darmstadt 1986, p. 416ff
  3. Weiers 1986, p.446
  4. S. Demberel et al., BNMAU-yn tüükhiin zarim ner tomyoo, on tsagiin tailbar toli, Ulaanbaatar 1991, p. 18, 65
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 8/2/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.