Adenine nucleotide translocator
Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and imports ADP into the matrix. ANT is the most plentiful protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
ANT has long been thought to function asymmetrically as a homodimer of subunits in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The dimer was thought to be a gated pore through which ADP and ATP were exchanged between the mitochondrial matrix and the cytoplasm. The dimer hypothesis was first challenged when the three-dimensional structure of ANT was discovered to be a monomer. Further work has shown that ANT functions as a monomer in detergents and in mitochondrial membranes.
ANT is an important structural component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore which can open and lead to cell death through apoptosis or necrosis.
In humans, there exist three paraologous ANT isoforms:
- 1 2 3 Kaukonen J, Juselius JK, Tiranti V, Kyttälä A, Zeviani M, Comi GP, Keränen S, Peltonen L, Suomalainen A (2000). "Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782–785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782. PMID 10926541.
- ↑ Pebay-Peyroula E, Dahout-Gonzalez C, Kahn R, Trézéguet V, Lauquin GJ, Brandolin G (November 2003). "Structure of mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in complex with carboxyatractyloside". Nature. 426 (6962): 39–44. doi:10.1038/nature02056. PMID 14603310.
- ↑ Bamber L, Slotboom DJ, Kunji ER (August 2007). "Yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents as demonstrated by differential affinity purification". J. Mol. Biol. 371 (2): 388–95. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.05.072. PMID 17572439.
- ↑ Bamber L, Harding M, Monné M, Slotboom DJ, Kunji ER (June 2007). "The yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier functions as a monomer in mitochondrial membranes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (26): 10830–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703969104. PMC 1891095. PMID 17566106.
- ↑ Kunji ER, Crichton PG (March 2010). "Mitochondrial carriers function as monomers". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1797 (6–7): 817–831. doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.03.023. PMID 20362544.