Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa
አዲስ አበባ

A montage of Addis Ababa's sights (from left to right)
Top: Addis Ababa City Hall, Lion of Judah Monument, Tiglachin Monument
Middle: St. George's Cathedral, Yekatit 12 Square, Addis Ababa Railway Station
Bottom: Meyazia 27 Square, View of Addis Ababa from Entoto, Meskel Square
Nickname(s): City of Humans, Adisaba, Sheger, Adu, Adu Genet

Location in Ethiopia

Coordinates: 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E / 9.03000°N 38.74000°E / 9.03000; 38.74000
Country  Ethiopia
Chartered City Addis Ababa
Chartered 1886
  Mayor of Addis Ababa Diriba Kuma
  Capital 527 km2 (203 sq mi)
  Land 527 km2 (203 sq mi)
Elevation 2,355 m (7,726 ft)
Population (2008)
  Capital 3,384,569
  Density 5,165.1/km2 (13,378/sq mi)
  Urban 3,384,569
  Metro 4,567,857
Time zone East Africa Time (UTC+3)
Area code(s) (+251) 11
Website Official website

Addis Ababa or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority),(Amharic: አዲስ አበባ? Addis Abäba IPA: [adˈdis ˈabəba], "new flower"; Oromo: Finfinne,[3][4] [fɪnˈfɪ́n.nɛ́] "Natural Spring(s)"), is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It has a population of 3,384,569 according to the 2007 population census, with annual growth rate of 3.8%. This number has been increased from the originally published 2,738,248 figure and appears to be still largely underestimated.[2][5]

As a chartered city (ras gez astedader), Addis Ababa has the status of both a city and a state. It is where the African Union is and its predecessor the OAU was based. It also hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and numerous other continental and international organizations. Addis Ababa is therefore often referred to as "the political capital of Africa" due to its historical, diplomatic and political significance for the continent.[6]

The city is populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia. It is home to Addis Ababa University. The Federation of African Societies of Chemistry (FASC) and Horn of Africa Press Institute (HAPI) are also headquartered in Addis Ababa.


Entoto is one of a handful of sites put forward as a possible location for a medieval imperial capital known as Barara. This permanent fortified city was established during the early to mid 15th century, and it served as the main residence of several successive emperors up to the early 16th century reign of Lebna Dingel.[7] The city was depicted standing between Mounts Zikwala and Menegasha on a map drawn by the Italian cartographer Fra Mauro in around 1450, and it was razed and plundered by Ahmed Gragn while the imperial army was trapped on the south of the Awash River in 1529, an event witnessed and documented two years later by the Yemeni writer Arab-Faqih. The suggestion that Barara was located on Mount Entoto is supported by the very recent discovery of a large medieval town overlooking Addis Ababa located between rock-hewn Washa Mikael and the more modern church of Entoto Maryam, founded in the late 19th century by Emperor Menelik. Dubbed the Pentagon, the 30 hecatre site incorporates a castle with 12 towers, along with 520 metres of stone walls measuring up to 5-meter high.[8]

The site of Addis Ababa was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul and the city was founded in 1886 by Emperor Menelik II. Menelik, as initially a King of the Shewa province, had found Mount Entoto a useful base for military operations in the south of his realm, and in 1879 he visited the reputed ruins of a medieval town, and an unfinished rock church that showed proof of the medieval empire's capital in the area before the campaigns of Ahmad ibn Ibrihim. His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Mount Entoto, and Menelik endowed a second church in the area.[8][7]

However, the immediate area did not encourage the founding of a town due to the lack of firewood and water, so settlement actually began in the valley south of the mountain in 1886. Initially, Taytu built a house for herself near the "Filwoha" hot mineral springs, where she and members of the Showan Royal Court liked to take mineral baths. Other nobility and their staff and households settled in the vicinity, and Menelik expanded his wife's house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa today. The name changed to Addis Ababa and became Ethiopia's capital when Menelik II became Emperor of Ethiopia. The town grew by leaps and bounds. One of Emperor Menelik's contributions that is still visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets.[9]

Following all the major engagements of their invasion, Italian troops from the colony of Eritrea entered Addis Ababa on 5 May 1936. Along with Dire Dawa, the city had been spared the aerial bombardment (including the use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas) practiced elsewhere and its railway to Djibouti remained intact. Under its Italian spelling Addis Abeba, the city served as the Duke of Aosta's capital for the unified colony of Italian East Africa until 1941, when it was abandoned in favor of Amba Alagi and other redoubts during the Second World War's East African Campaign. The city was liberated by Major Orde Wingate's Sudanese and Ethiopian Gideon Force in time to permit Emperor Haile Selassie's return on 5 May 1941, five years to the day after he had left.

Following reconstruction, Haile Selassie helped form the Organisation of African Unity in 1963 and invited the new organization to keep its headquarters in the city. The OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union (AU), also headquartered in Addis Ababa. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa also has its headquarters in Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa was also the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965.

Ethiopia has often been called the original home of mankind due to various humanoid fossil discoveries like the Australopithecine Lucy.[10] North eastern Africa, and the Afar region in particular was the central focus of these claims until recent DNA evidence suggested origins in south central Ethiopian regions like present-day Addis Ababa.[11][12] After analysing the DNA of almost 1,000 people around the world, geneticists and other scientists claimed people spread from what is now Addis Ababa 100,000 years ago.[13][14] The research indicated that genetic diversity increases steadily the farther one's ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.[15][16]


Addis-Ababa and vicinities (false colors satellite image): it is an urbanization strip connecting Addis Ababa and Debre Zeyit city (at image right bottom corner)
Addis Ababa seen from SPOT satellite
District map of Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa lies at an elevation of 2,300 metres (7,500 ft) and is a grassland biome, located at 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E / 9.03000°N 38.74000°E / 9.03000; 38.74000Coordinates: 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E / 9.03000°N 38.74000°E / 9.03000; 38.74000.[17] The city lies at the foot of Mount Entoto and forms part of the watershed for the Awash. From its lowest point, around Bole International Airport, at 2,326 metres (7,631 ft) above sea level in the southern periphery, the city rises to over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) in the Entoto Mountains to the north.


The city is divided into 10 boroughs, called subcities (Amharic: ክፍለ ከተማ?, kifle ketema), and 99 wards (Amharic: ቀበሌ?, kebele).[18][19] The 10 subcities are:

Nr Subcity Area (km²) Population Density Map
Addis Ketema[20]
Akaky Kaliti[21]
Kolfe Keranio[26]
Nifas Silk-Lafto[28]


Addis Ababa
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NMAE[30]

Addis Ababa has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen: Cwb).[31] The city has a complex mix of highland climate zones, with temperature differences of up to 10 °C (18 °F), depending on elevation and prevailing wind patterns. The high elevation moderates temperatures year-round, and the city's position near the equator means that temperatures are very constant from month to month.

Mid-November to January is a season for occasional rain. The highland climate regions are characterized by dry winters, and this is the dry season in Addis Ababa. During this season the daily maximum temperatures are usually not more that 23 °C (73 °F), and the night-time minimum temperatures can drop to freezing. The short rainy season is from February to May. During this period, the difference between the daytime maximum temperatures and the night-time minimum temperatures is not as great as during other times of the year, with minimum temperatures in the range of 10–15 °C (50–59 °F). At this time of the year the city experiences warm temperatures and a pleasant rainfall. The long wet season is from June to mid-September; it is the major winter season of the country. This period coincides with summer, but the temperatures are much lower than at other times of year due to the frequent rain and hail and the abundance of cloud cover and fewer hours of sunshine. This time of the year is characterized by dark, chilly and wet days and nights. The autumn which follows is a transitional period between the wet and dry seasons.

The highest record temperature was 32 °C (90 °F) 27 August 1996, while the lowest record temperature was 0 °C (32 °F) on 23 November 1999.[32]

Climate data for Addis Ababa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30
Average high °C (°F) 23.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.4
Average low °C (°F) 7.4
Record low °C (°F) 1
Average rainfall mm (inches) 13
Average rainy days 3 5 7 10 10 20 27 26 18 4 1 1 132
Average relative humidity (%) 47 51.5 47.5 54.5 53 67.5 79.5 79 71.5 47.5 48 45.5 57.67
Mean daily sunshine hours 9 9 8 7 8 6 3 3 5 8 9 9 7
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)(precipitation),[33] for mean temperatures[31]
Source #2: Voodoo Skies for record temperatures,[32] BBC Weather for humidity and sunshine,[34] National Meteorological Agency[30]


Based on the 2007 census conducted by the Ethiopian national statistics authorities the population of Addis Ababa is 3,384,569 million; all of the population are urban inhabitants. For the capital city 662,728 households were counted living in 628,984 housing units, which results in an average of 5.3 persons to a household. Although all Ethiopian ethnic groups are represented in Addis Ababa due to its position as capital of the country, the largest groups include the Amhara (56.04%), Oromo (19.00%), Gurage (16.34%), Tigray (5.18%), Silt'e (2.94%), and Gamo (1.68%). Languages spoken include Amharic (71.0%), Oromiffa (10.7%), Gurage (8.37%), Tigrinya (3.60%), Silt'e (1.82%) and Gamo (1.03%). The religion with the most believers in Addis Ababa is Ethiopian Orthodox with 74.7% of the population, while 16.2% are Muslim, 7.77% Protestant, and 0.48% Catholic.[35]

In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the city's population was reported to be 2,112,737, of whom 1,023,452 were men and 1,089,285 were women. At that time not all of the population were urban inhabitants; only 2,084,588 or 98.7% were. For the entire administrative council there were 404,783 households in 376,568 housing units with an average of 5.2 persons per household. The major ethnic groups included the Amhara (48.3%), Oromo (19.2%), Gurage (13.5%; 2.3% Sebat Bet, and 0.8% Sodo), Tigray 7.64%, Silt'e 3.98%, and foreigners from Eritrea 1.33%. Languages spoken included Amharic (72.6%), Oromiffa (10.0%), Gurage (6.54%), Tigrinya (5.41%), and Silt'e 2.29%. In 1994 the predominant religion was also Ethiopian Orthodox with 82.0% of the population, while 12.7% were Muslim, 3.87% Protestant, and 0.78% Catholic.[36]

Standard of living

According to the 2007 national census, 98.64% of the housing units of Addis Ababa had access to safe drinking water, while 14.9% had flush toilets, 70.7% pit toilets (both ventilated and unventilated), and 14.3% had no toilet facilities.[37] In 2014, there were 63 public toilets in the city, with plans to build more.[38] Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Addis Ababa as of 2005 include the following: 0.1% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 93.6% and for women 79.95%, the highest in the nation for both sexes; and the civic infant mortality rate is 45 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is less than the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants' first month of life.[39]

The City is partially powered by water at the Koka Reservoir.


The bustling centre of Addis Ababa.

The economic activities in Addis Ababa are diverse. According to official statistics from the federal government, some 119,197 people in the city are engaged in trade and commerce; 113,977 in manufacturing and industry; 80,391 homemakers of different variety; 71,186 in civil administration; 50,538 in transport and communication; 42,514 in education, health and social services; 32,685 in hotel and catering services; and 16,602 in agriculture. In addition to the residents of rural parts of Addis Ababa, the city dwellers also participate in animal husbandry and cultivation of gardens. 677 hectares (1,670 acres) of land is irrigated annually, on which 129,880 quintals of vegetables are cultivated. It is a relatively clean and safe city, with the most common crimes being pickpocketing, scams and minor burglary.[40] The city has recently been in a construction boom with tall buildings rising in many places. Various luxury services have also become available and the construction of shopping malls has recently increased. According to Tia Goldenberg of IOL, area spa professionals said that some people have labelled the city, "the spa capital of Africa."[41]

Ethiopian Airlines has its headquarters on the grounds of Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa.[42]


Tourism is a growing industry within Addis Ababa and Ethiopia as a whole. The country has seen a 10% increase in tourism over the last decade, subsequently bringing an influx of tourists to Addis Ababa. In 2015, the European Council on Tourism and Trade named Ethiopia the #1 tourist spot in the world.[43]

Law and Government


Pursuant to the Ethiopian Constitution of 1995, the city of Addis Ababa is one of the two federal cities that are accountable to the Federal Government of Ethiopia. The other city with the same status is Dire Dawa in the east of the country and both federal cities are located within the State of Oromia. Earlier, following the establishment of the federal structure in 1991 under the Transitional Charter of Ethiopia, the City Government of Addis Ababa was one of the then new 14 regional governments. However, that structure was changed by the federal constitution in 1995 and as a result Addis Ababa does not have statehood status.

The administration of Addis Ababa city consists of the Mayor, who leads the executive branch, and the City Council, which enacts city regulations. However, as part of the Federal Government, the federal legislature enacts laws that are binding in Addis Ababa. Members of the City Council are directly elected by the residents of the city and the Council, in turn, elects the Mayor among its members. Term of office for elected officials is five years. However, the Federal Government, when it deems necessary, can dissolve the City Council and the entire administration and replace it by a temporary administration until elections take place next. Residents of Addis Ababa are represented in the federal legislature, the House of Peoples' Representatives. However, the city is not represented in the House of Federation, which is the federal upper house constituted by the representatives of the member states. The executive branch under the Mayor comprises the City Manager and various branches of civil service offices.

The current Mayor of Addis Ababa is Mr. Diriba Kuma from the Oromo People Democratic Organisation (OPDO), which is member of the ruling coalition Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Mr. Diriba Kuma took office on 9 July 2013. His predecessor, Mr. Kuma Demeksa (also from the OPDO party), served a five-year term from 30 October 2008. Before that, the Federal Government appointed Mr. Berhane Deressa to lead the temporary caretaker administration that served from 9 May 2006 to 30 October 2008 following the 2005 election crisis. In the 2005 national election, the ruling EPRDF party suffered a major defeat in Addis Ababa. However, the opposition who won in Addis Ababa did not take part in the government both on regional and federal level. This situation forced the EPRDF-led Federal Government to assign a temporary administration until a new election was carried out. As a result, Mr. Berhane Deressa, an independent citizen, was appointed.

Some of the notable past mayors of Addis Ababa are Arkabe Oqubay (2003–06), Zewde Teklu (1985–89), Alemu Abebe (1977–85) and Zewde Gebrehiwot (1960–69).


Addis Ababa is considered to be extremely safe in comparison to the other cities in the region.[44] On a crime index, Addis Ababa scores a 44.28, putting it at a crime level of moderate. Pickpocketing and petty unarmed thefts are more common within the city. Corruption and bribery are extremely common crimes in Addis Ababa. Violent crimes are very unlikely to happen in the city.[45]


High rise, architecture and skyline

A financial district is currently under construction in Addis Ababa, that will include many high-rise buildings.[46]

Mayor Kuma Demeksa embarked on a quest to improve investment for the buildings in the city. Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the African Union. The fossilized skeleton, and a plaster replica of the early hominid Lucy (known in Ethiopia as Dinkinesh) is preserved at the Ethiopian National Museum in Addis Ababa. Meskel Square is one of the noted squares in the city and is the site for the annual Meskel at the end of September annually when thousands gather in celebration.

The city is home to the Ethiopian National Library, the Ethiopian Ethnological Museum (and former Guenete Leul Palace), the Addis Ababa Museum, the Ethiopian Natural History Museum, the Ethiopian Railway Museum and National Postal Museum.

Notable taller architecture in Addis Ababa includes the Huda Tower, Nani Tower, Bank Misr Building, as well as the approved Angola World Trade Center Tower, Abyssinia Bank Tower, Mexico Square Tower and the 200 million dollar AU Conference Center and Office Complex.


Notable buildings include St George's Cathedral (founded in 1896 and also home to a museum), Holy Trinity Cathedral (once the largest Ethiopian Orthodox Cathedral and the location of Sylvia Pankhurst's tomb) as well as the burial place of Emperor Haile Selassie and the Imperial family, and those who fought the Italians during the World War II. There is also Menelik's old Imperial palace which remains the official seat of government, and the National Palace formerly known as the Jubilee Palace (built to mark Emperor Haile Selassie's Silver Jubilee in 1955) which is the residence of the President of Ethiopia. Jubilee Palace was also modeled after Buckingham Palace in the United Kingdom. Africa Hall is located across Menelik II avenue from this Palace and is where the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa is headquartered as well as most UN offices in Ethiopia. It is also the site of the founding of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) which eventually became the African Union. The African Union is now housed in a new headquarters built on the site of the demolished Akaki Prison, on land donated by Ethiopia for this purpose in the south western part of the city. The Hager Fikir Theatre, the oldest theatre in Ethiopia, is located at the Piazza district. Near Holy Trinity Cathedral is the art deco Parliament building, built during the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie, with its clock tower. It continues to serve as the seat of Parliament today. Across from the Parliament is the Shengo Hall, built by the Derg regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam as its new parliament hall. The Shengo Hall was the world's largest pre-fabricated building, which was constructed in Finland before being assembled in Addis Ababa. It is used for large meetings and conventions. Itegue Taitu Hotel, built in 1898 (Ethiopian Calendar) in the middle of the city (Piazza), was the first hotel in Ethiopia.

In the Merkato district, which happens to be the largest open market in Africa, is the impressive Grand Anwar Mosque, the biggest mosque in Ethiopia built during the Italian occupation. A few metres to the southwest of the Anwar Mosque is the Raguel Church built after the liberation by Empress Menen. The proximity of the mosque and the church has symbolised the long peaceful relations between Christianity and Islam in Ethiopia. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Holy Family is also in the Merkato district. Near Bole International Airport is the new Medhane Alem (Savior of the World) Orthodox Cathedral, which is the second largest in Africa.

Other features of the city include the large Mercato market, the Jan Meda racecourse, Bihere Tsige Recreation Centre and a railway line to Djibouti. Sport facilities include Addis Ababa and Nyala Stadiums. The 2008 African Championships in Athletics were held in Addis Ababa. The Entoto Mountains start among the northern suburbs. Suburbs of the city include Shiro Meda and Entoto in the north, Urael and Bole (home to Bole International Airport) in the east, Nifas Silk in the south-east, Mekanisa in the south, and Keraniyo and Kolfe in the west. Kolfe was mentioned in Nelson Mandela's Autobiography "A Long Walk to Freedom", as the place he got military training.

Addis Ababa has a distinct architectural style. Unlike many African cities, Addis Ababa was not built as a colonial settlement. This means that the city did not have a European style of architecture. This changed with the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1936. The Piazza district in the city center is the most evident indicator of Italian influence. The buildings are very much Italian in style and there are many Italian restaurants, as well as small cafes, and European-style shopping centers. [47]

Parks include Africa Park, situated along Menelik II Avenue.


The city hosts the We Are the Future centre, a child care centre that provides children with a higher standard of living. The centre is managed under the direction of the mayor's office, and the international NGO Glocal Forum serves as the fundraiser and programme planner and coordinator for the WAF child centre in each city. Each WAF city is linked to several peer cities and public and private partners to create a unique international coalition.

Launched in 2004, the programme is the result of a strategic partnership between the Glocal Forum, the Quincy Jones Listen Up Foundation and Mr. Hani Masri, with the support of the World Bank, UN agencies and major companies.

Image gallery


Addis Ababa University was founded in 1950 and was originally named "University College of Addis Ababa", then renamed in 1962 for the former Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I who had donated his Genete Leul Palace to be the university's main campus in the previous year. It is the home of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies and the Ethnological Museum. The city also has numerous public universities and private colleges including Ethiopian Civil Service University, Admas University College, St. Mary's University and Unity University. A massive new university solely dedicated to science and technology is under construction in the east of the city.


The distinctive Addis Ababa blue taxis.
Bole international airport

Public transport is through public buses from Anbessa City Bus Service Enterprise or blue and white share taxis. The taxis are usually minibuses that can seat at most twelve people. Two people are responsible for each taxi, the driver and a weyala who collects fares and calls out the taxi's destination.


The construction of the Addis Ababa Ring Road was initiated in 1998 to implement the city master plan and enhance peripheral development. The Ring Road was divided into three major phases that connect all the five main gates in and out of Addis Ababa with all other regions (Jimma, Debre Zeit, Mekelle, Gojjam and Ambo). For this project, China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) was the partner of Addis Ababa City Roads Authority (AACRA).[48] The Ring Road has greatly helped to decongest and alleviate city traffic. ] Intercity bus service is provided by the Selam Bus Line Share Company.


The city is served by Addis Ababa Bole International Airport, where a new terminal opened in 2003. The old Lideta Airport in the western "Old Airport" district is used mostly by small craft and military planes and helicopters.


Addis Ababa also has had a railway connection with Djibouti City, with a picturesque French style railway station, but the railway no longer operates, there are plans for the construction of a new modern rail line in the near future. The new Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway will start operation in September 2016.

Light rail

Addis Ababa's opened its light rail system to the public on 20 September 2015. The system is the first of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Ethiopian Railway Corporation reached a funding agreement worth millions of dollars with the Export and Import Bank of China in September 2010 and the light rail project was completed in January 2015. The route is a 34.25 km network with two lines; the operational line running from the center to the south of the city. Upon completion, the east-west line will run from Ayat to the Torhailoch ringroad, and from Menelik Square to Merkato Bus Station, Meskel Square and Akaki.[49]


  1. ^ "Free to protest, just a bit". The Economist. 

Twin towns – Sister cities

Notable residents

See also


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  2. 1 2 Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia. "Census 2007, preliminary (pdf-file)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
  3. Jalata, Asafa (2005). Oromia and Ethiopia: state formation and ethnonational conflict, 1868–2004. Red Sea Press. pp. 235, 241. ISBN 978-1-56902-246-7.
  4. Jalata, Asafa (1998). Oromo nationalism and the Ethiopian discourse: the search for freedom and democracy. Red Sea Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-56902-066-1.
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  7. 1 2 Philip Briggs. Ethiopia. Bradt Travel Guides (2015) pp. 49–50
  8. 1 2 Philip Briggs. Ethiopia. Bradt Travel Guides (2015) pp. 131–132
  9. Pankhurst, p. 195
  10. African tribe from Ethiopia populated rest of the world.
  11. "Humans Moved From Africa Across Globe, DNA Study Says". Bloomberg. 21 February 2008.
  12. "DNA Links Humanity To One Common Origin: Africa". Archived from the original on 14 September 2009.
  13. "Around the world from Addis Ababa". 21 February 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  14. "New Study Proves Theory of Human Recent African Origin".
  15. Brown, David (22 February 2008). "Genetic Mutations Offer Insights on Human Diversity". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
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  19. "Article at (map of Addis Ababa, page 9)" (PDF). Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  20. "Addis Ketema page (Addis Ababa website)". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  21. "Akaky Kaliti page (Addis Ababa website)". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  22. "Arada page (Addis Ababa website)". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  23. "Bole page (Addis Ababa website)". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  24. "Gullele page (Addis Ababa website)". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  25. "Kirkos page (Addis Ababa website)". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  26. "Kolfe Keranio page (Addis Ababa website)". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  27. "Lideta page (Addis Ababa website)". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
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  32. 1 2 "Adis Ababa, Ethiopia". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
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  36. "The 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia: Results for Addis Ababa", Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.8, 2.13A Archived 15 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  37. "Census 2007 Tables: Addis Abeba", Tables, 8.7, 8.8
  38. Smith, David (28 August 2014). "Ethiopians' plight: 'The toilets are unhealthy, but we don't have a choice'" via The Guardian.
  39. Macro International Inc. "2008. Ethiopia Atlas of Key Demographic and Health Indicators, 2005." (Calverton: Macro International, 2008), pp. 2, 3, 10 (Retrieved 30 September 2010)
  40. Overseas Security Advisory Council – Ethiopia 2007 Crime and Safety Report.
  41. Massages and manicures hit Addis Ababa by Tia Goldenberg. Retrieved 15 January 2010. IOL'. 6 November 2007.
  42. "Company Profile." Ethiopian Airlines. Retrieved on 3 October 2009.
  43. CNN, Sophie Eastaugh, for. "What makes Ethiopia the world's best spot for tourism?". CNN. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  44. "5 Reasons to Visit Addis Ababa Now". Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  45. "Crime in Addis Ababa". Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  46. Solomon, Abiy. "Ethiopia building a Financial District in Addis Ababa".
  47. "Ethiopia Capital City, About Addis Ababa Tourism and Trave".
  48. "INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MULTI-NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS: Addis Ababa Ring Road Project – A Case Study of a Chinese ..." (PDF). Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  49. "Railway Gazette: Chinese funding for Addis Abeba light rail". Archived from the original on 13 October 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  50. "קשריםקשרים בין-לאומיים של העיר באר-שבע" (in Hebrew). Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  51. "Sister Cities of Ankara".
  52. Tadias Magazine, "DC & Addis to Become Sister Cities", 4 December 2013, available at

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