Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi as-Sijistani Arabic: أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني), commonly known simply as Abu Dawud, was a noted Persian collector of prophetic hadith, and compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd.
Abu Dawud was born in Sistan, eastern Iran (then-Persia) and died in 889 in Basra. Widely traveled among scholars of hadith, he went to Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Hijaz, Tihamah, Khurasan, Nishapur, and Marv among other places in order to collect hadith. He was primarily interested in jurisprudence, and as a result his collection focused largely on legal hadith. Out of about 500,000 hadith, he chose 4,800 for inclusion in his work.
School of thought and Quotes
Imam Abu Dawud was a follower of Hanbali although some have consider him Shafi.
From this book of mine four (4) Hadith are sufficient for an intelligent and insightful person. They are:
- Deeds are to be judged only by intentions.
- Part of a man's good observance of Islam is that he leaves alone that which does not concern him.
- None of you can be a believer unless you love for your brother that which you love for yourself.
- The permitted (halal) is clear, and the forbidden (haram) is clear, between these two are doubtful matters. Whosoever abstains from these doubtful matters has saved his religion.
He wrote some 21 books in total. Some of the most prominent are:
- Sunan Abu Dāwūd, containing some 4,800 hadith, is his principal work. These are usually numbered after the edition of Muhammad Muhyi al-Din `Abd al-Hamid (Cairo: Matba`at Mustafa Muhammad, 1354/1935), where 5,274 are distinguished. He indicated that all the hadith in his collection were authenticated (sahih) unless specifically marked as unauthenticated (ḍaʿīf). Some Islamic scholars (such as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani) believe a number of the unmarked ones to be ḍaʿīf as well.
- In another work, Kitab al-Marāsīl, he lists 600 mursal hadith which, after extensive background investigation, he concludes are nonetheless sahih.
- Risālat Abu Dāwūd ilā Ahli Makkah; his letter to the inhabitants of Makkah describing his Sunan Abu Dāwūd.
Early Islam scholars
| Early Islamic scholars|
|Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions|
|`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taught||Ali (607-661) fourth caliph taught||Aisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taught||Abd Allah ibn Abbas (618-687) taught||Zayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taught||Umar (579-644) second caliph taught||Abu Hurairah (603 – 681) taught|
|Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taught|
|Husayn ibn Ali (626–680) taught||Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657-725) taught and raised by Aisha||Urwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taught||Said ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taught||Abdullah ibn Umar (614-693) taught||Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught|
|Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taught|
|Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taught|
|Hisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taught||Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taught||Salim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taught||Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar|
|Hammad bin ibi Sulman taught|
|Muhammad al-Baqir (676-733) taught||Farwah bint al-Qasim Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother|
|Abu Hanifa (699 — 767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taught||Zayd ibn Ali (695-740)||Ja'far al-Sadiq (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taught||Malik ibn Anas (711 – 795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taught|
|Al-Waqidi (748 – 822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn Anas||Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas|
|Abu Yusuf (729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqh||Muhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)|
|Al-Shafi‘i (767—820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taught||Ismail ibn Ibrahim|
|Ali ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the Companions|
|Ibn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography|
|Isma'il ibn Jafar (719-775)||Musa al-Kadhim (745-799)|
|Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780—855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith books||Muhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith books||Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith books||Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith books||Al-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles|
|Ibn Majah (824- 887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith book|
|Abu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book|
|Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver Shia|
|Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-Tabari|
|Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna|
|Ibn Babawayh (923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver Shia|
|Sharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver Shia|
|Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver Shia|
|Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on Sufism|
|Rumi (1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism|
|KEY: Some of Muhammad's Companions||KEY: Taught in Medina||KEY: Taught in Iraq||KEY: Worked in Syria||KEY: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadith||KEY: Worked in Iran|