ʿAbd (Arabic: عبد) is an Arabic word meaning one who is subordinated as a slave or a servant, and it means also to worship. The word can also be transliterated into English as 'Abd, where the apostrophe indicates the ayin, denoting a voiced pharyngeal fricative consonant or some reflex of it. In Western ears, it may be perceived as a guttural 'a' sound.
It appears in many common Arab names followed by Al (the) in form of "Abd ul", "Abd ul-", etc.; this is also commonly translitated as "el-," in the form "Abd el-", meaning "servant of the-". This is always followed by one of the names for God. These names are given in List of Arabic theophoric names and 99 Names of God.
It can also refer to humans, such as:
- Abdul Nabi (“slave of the Prophet” or “servant of the Prophet”)
- Abdul Zahra (slave of Fatimah Zahra - daughter of Muhammad)
- Abdul Hussein (slave of Hussein - grandson of Muhammad)
It can also be used by Arab Christians and Arabic-speaking Christians, just as long as it is associated to their religion:
- Abdul Masih (“slave of the Messiah” or “servant of the Messiah”)
- Abdul Salib (“slave of the Cross” or “servant of the Cross”)
- Abdul Shahid (“slave of the Martyr [i.e. Jesus Christ]” or “servant of the Martyr”)
- Abd Yasu ("slave of Jesus" or "servant of Jesus")
Abdullah can be also used by Arab Christians, as they refer to God as Allah.