# A Mathematical Theory of Communication

"**A Mathematical Theory of Communication**" is an influential^{[1]}^{[2]} 1948 article^{[3]}^{[4]} by mathematician Claude E. Shannon. It was renamed * The Mathematical Theory of Communication* in the book,

^{[5]}a small but significant title change after realizing the generality of this work.

## Description

The article was the founding work of the field of information theory. It was later published in 1949 as a book titled *The Mathematical Theory of Communication* (ISBN 0-252-72546-8), which was published as a paperback in 1963 (ISBN 0-252-72548-4). The book contains an additional article by Warren Weaver, providing an overview of the theory for a more general audience. Shannon's article laid out the basic elements of communication:

- An information source that produces a message
- A transmitter that operates on the message to create a signal which can be sent through a channel
- A channel, which is the medium over which the signal, carrying the information that composes the message, is sent
- A receiver, which transforms the signal back into the message intended for delivery
- A destination, which can be a person or a machine, for whom or which the message is intended

It also developed the concepts of information entropy and redundancy, and introduced the term bit (which Shannon credited to John Tukey) as a unit of information.

## References

- ↑ Robert B. Ash.
*Information Theory*. New York: Interscience, 1965. ISBN 0-470-03445-9. New York: Dover 1990. ISBN 0-486-66521-6, p. v - ↑ Yeung, R. W. (2008). "The Science of Information".
*Information Theory and Network Coding*. pp. 1–01. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79234-7_1. ISBN 978-0-387-79233-0. - ↑
- Shannon, Claude E. (July 1948). "A Mathematical Theory of Communication".
*Bell System Technical Journal*.**27**(3): 379–423. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x.

- Shannon, Claude E. (July 1948). "A Mathematical Theory of Communication".
- ↑
- Shannon, Claude E. (October 1948). "A Mathematical Theory of Communication".
*Bell System Technical Journal*.**27**(4): 623–666. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb00917.x.

- Shannon, Claude E. (October 1948). "A Mathematical Theory of Communication".
- ↑ Claude E. Shannon, Warren Weaver.
*The Mathematical Theory of Communication.*Univ of Illinois Press, 1949. ISBN 0-252-72548-4