A duplex theory of pitch perception

"A duplex theory of pitch perception" is a paper written by J.C.R. Licklider,[1] and published during the year 1951.[2] The word duplex has the definition, having two parts, and in the specific context of systems of communication, for example computers, it is known to possess the meaning allowing the transmission of two signals moving simultaneously in contrary directions.[3]


The paper has as its subject the nature of human pitch perception, and therefore belongs within the general classification of auditory theory.[2]

Licklider is credited with originating a model known as autocorrection (AC model),[4] as a composite element of his formulation of the duplex model, during the year 1951, and later developed during the years 1956, 1959 and 1962.[5]

Licklider references G. Révész and A. Bachem within the first paragraph. Other references on the first page R.M.Fano and L.A. de Rosa, N. Wiener, H. von Helmholtz (resonance-place theory), H. Fletcher (space-time pattern theory), J.C.Steinberg and N.R. French (and others at Bell Telephone Laboratories) and R.K. Potter, G.A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green, and also K.N. Stevens.[2]

References shown on the second page are W.S. McCulloch and W. Pitts.[2]

References shown on the third page are G.A. Miller and W.G. Taylor, J.F. Schouten, W.A. Rosenblith, H.Davis.[2]

References shown on the fourth page are S.S. Stevens & H. Davis, E.G. Wever, R. Lorente de Nó, R. Galambos & W.A.Rosenblith & M.R. Rosenzweig.[2]

The reference shown on the fifth page is N. Wiener only.[2]

The paper ends with a section titled zusammenfassung.[2]

The paper finishes with a section headed Zusammenfassung.[2]


The duplex model served as a basis for models created at a later time, by; Brown & Puckette (1989), Slaney & Lyon (1990), Meddis & Hewitt (1992), Patterson et al (1995), Meddis & O'Mard (1997), de Cheveigné (1998).[6][7]

Slaney & Lyon constructed a pitch detector to serve as a mimic of the anatomical functioning of the human ear, and the perception of sound by a human. The representation formed by the detector is known as the correlogram, which showed two factors, the spectral content and the time structure of any particular sound transmitted for detection.[7]

See also



Anatomy and physiology



  1. Rappold, Raychel. Biography. Rochester University. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Licklider, J. C. R. A Duplex Theory of Pitch Perception (PDF). published by Birkhäuser (Basel, Switzerland) & MIT. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  3. Oxford Dictionary - definition published by OUP [Retrieved 2015-08-08]
  4. de Cheveigné, Alain. Pitch perception models - a historical review (PDF). Institute of Research and Acoustic and Musical Co-ordination, France. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  5. de Cheveigné, Alain (1998). Cancellation model of Pitch perception (PDF). Laboratoire des Systèmes Perceptifs. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  6. Dau, T. Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics. Springer Science & Business Media 26 Oct 2008, 1950 pages, ISBN 038730441X. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  7. 1 2 Slaney, Malcolm; Lyon, Richard F. (1990). A Perceptual Pitch Detector. Apple Computer Inc. CiteSeerX accessible.
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