ADX Florence

U.S. Penitentiary, Florence ADX
Location Fremont County, near Florence, Colorado
Coordinates Coordinates: 38°21′23″N 105°05′41″W / 38.35630°N 105.09482°W / 38.35630; -105.09482
Status Operational
Security class Supermax with adjacent minimum security camp
Population 927 (408 supermax, 519 camp)[1]
Opened 1994
Managed by Federal Bureau of Prisons
Warden David Berkebile

The United States Penitentiary, Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX) is an American federal supermax prison for male inmates located in Fremont County, Colorado.[2][3] It is unofficially known as ADX Florence, Florence ADMAX, Supermax, or the Alcatraz of the Rockies.[4] Part of the Florence Federal Correctional Complex, which is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), a division of the United States Department of Justice, it houses the male inmates in the federal prison system who are deemed the most dangerous and in need of the tightest control. ADX also includes an adjacent minimum-security camp that, as of March 2014, houses more prisoners than the supermax unit.

The BOP does not have a designated "supermax" facility for women. Women in the BOP system who are classified as "special management concerns" due to violence or escape attempts are confined in the administrative unit of Federal Medical Center, Carswell in Fort Worth, Texas.[5]

The facility's current warden is David Berkebile.[6][7]


ADX Florence was constructed as a response to several serious security breaches at federal prisons, including those that occurred at the United States Penitentiary, Marion, a high security facility in Marion, Illinois, on October 22, 1983, in which Correction Officers Merle Clutts and Robert Hoffman were stabbed to death in two separate incidents. Relatively relaxed security procedures allowed an inmate, while walking down a hall, to turn to the side and approach another cell so an accomplice could unlock his handcuffs with a stolen key and provide him with a knife. Both officers were killed using this tactic.[8] Clutts's killer, Thomas Silverstein, is serving three life sentences at ADX. Hoffman's killer, Clayton Fountain, died in prison of natural causes in 2004.

As a response, USP Marion went into "permanent lockdown" and transformed itself into a "control unit" prison for the next 23 years, requiring inmates to remain in solitary confinement for 22 to 23 hours each day, and prohibiting communal dining, exercise, and religious services.[9]

Following the killings, Norman Carlson, then director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, argued that a more secure type of prison needed to be designed, where uncontrollable inmates could be isolated from correction officers and other prisoners for the sake of security and safety. Marion became a model for the subsequent construction of ADX, a facility designed from the ground up as a control unit prison.[10] Years later, Carlson said that building such a prison was the only way to handle inmates who "show absolutely no concern for human life." He pointed out that since Silverstein and Fountain were already serving multiple life sentences in a maximum security facility, simply adding another life sentence would have had no real deterrent effect on their behavior, and thereby enhance the safety of either institution staff, or other inmates. Such individuals in addition posed the risk of becoming suicidal/homicidal. That is, in response to their hostility to indefinite incarceration, they seek to terminate their sentences not by attempting their physical escape, but by committing a deliberate, premeditated act of homicide against someone, anyone, to whom they have access. Such individuals commit their murders in the hope that the particular circumstances of their new homicide (its premeditation, the killing of a law enforcement or corrections officer, or an aggravated rape prior to the murder), would not only justify their prosecution, but also the government's seeking the death penalty for their acts.[8]

ADX opened in November 1994.[11] The residents of Fremont County welcomed the prison as a source of employment. At the time, the county was already home to nine existing prisons. However, the lure of between 750 and 900 permanent jobs, in addition to another 1,000 temporary jobs during the prison's construction, led residents in the area to raise $160,000 to purchase 600 acres (240 ha) for the new prison. Hundreds of people attended the groundbreaking for the facility, which was designed jointly by two leading architecture firms in Colorado Springs, DLR Group and LKA Partners, and cost $60 million to build.[12]

Inmate population

he supermax unit at ADX Florence houses about 410 male inmates, each assigned to one of six security levels.[13]

The facility is best known for housing inmates who have been deemed too dangerous, too high-profile or too great a national security risk for even a maximum-security prison. These include the leaders of violent gangs who had continued to issue orders to their members from lower security facilities, Larry Hoover of the Gangster Disciples, and Barry Mills and Tyler Bingham of the Aryan Brotherhood. ADX also houses foreign terrorists, including Zacarias Moussaoui, the only person convicted in civilian court of the September 11 attacks; Faisal Shahzad, the perpetrator of the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt;[14] and Ramzi Yousef, mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing; as well as domestic terrorists, such as Ted Kaczynski and Eric Rudolph. Timothy McVeigh, who carried out the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, was housed at ADX before he was sentenced to death in 1997 and transferred to the United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute, which houses most federal death row inmates and is where Federal death sentences are carried out. McVeigh's co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, is serving 161 life sentences at ADX. Robert Hanssen, the former FBI agent who betrayed several spies to the Soviet Union and Russia, is serving 15 life sentences at ADX for his crimes. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the perpetrator of the Boston Marathon bombings, was transferred here from another prison in the Florence complex on July 17, 2015. The prison also houses inmates who are a high escape risk, including Richard McNair, who escaped from a county jail and two other prisons before being sent to ADX. Additionally, former Bonanno Crime Family Boss Vincent Basciano is currently serving time at ADX Florence.[15]

However, the majority of inmates have been sent there because they have an extensive history of committing violent crimes against corrections officers and fellow inmates in other prisons, up to and including murder. These inmates are kept in administrative segregation. They are confined in a specifically designed single person cell for 23 hours a day. They are removed under restraint (handcuffed, shackled or both), on a 24-hour clock (e.g., their one-hour time out of their cell may occur at any time of the day or night). The hour outside of the cell is for showering; exercise, and with privileges, a phone call. Their diet is restricted as well; to ensure that the foods they are served (in their cell) can't be used to harm themselves, or to make unhygienic conditions in their cell.

After at least one year, depending on their conduct, inmates are then gradually allowed out for longer periods. The long-term goal is to keep them at ADX for three years, then transfer them to a less restrictive prison to serve out the remainder of their sentences. According to a 1998 report in the San Francisco Chronicle, ADX Florence's main purpose is to "try and extract reasonably peaceful behavior from extremely violent career prisoners".[8]

Prison facility

Design of a cell at ADX Florence
Artist's view of the cell

ADX Florence is a 37-acre (15 ha), 490-bed complex at 5880 Highway 67, Florence, Colorado, about 100 miles (160 km) south of Denver and 40 miles (60 km) south of Colorado Springs.[16] It is one part of the Florence Federal Correctional Complex (FFCC), which comprises three correctional facilities, each with a different security rating.[17]

The majority of the facility is above ground. The only part that is underground is a subterranean corridor that links cellblocks to the lobby. Inmates spend 23 hours a day locked in their cells and are escorted by a minimum of three officers for their five hours of private recreation per week.[18] Each cell has a desk, a stool, and a bed, which are almost entirely made out of poured concrete, as well as a toilet that shuts off if blocked, a shower that runs on a timer to prevent flooding, and a sink lacking a potentially dangerous tap. Rooms may also be fitted with polished steel mirrors bolted to the wall, an electric light that can only be shut off remotely, a radio, and on rare occasions, a black-and-white television that shows recreational, educational, and religious programming.[19] In addition, all cells are soundproofed to prevent prisoners from communicating with each other via Morse code.

The 4 in (10 cm) by 4 ft (120 cm) windows are designed to prevent inmates from knowing their specific location within the complex because they can see only the sky and roof through them, making it virtually impossible to plan an escape. Inmates exercise in a concrete pit resembling an empty swimming pool, also designed to prevent them from knowing their location in the facility.[20] The pit is only large enough for a prisoner to walk 10 steps in a straight line, or 30 steps in a circle. Telecommunication with the outside world is forbidden, and food is hand-delivered by correction officers. However, inmates sent here from other prisons can potentially be allowed to eat in a shared dining room.[8] The prison as a whole contains a multitude of motion detectors and cameras, and 1,400 remote-controlled steel doors. Guards in the prison's control center monitor inmates 24 hours a day and can activate a "panic button" that instantly closes every door in the facility should an escape attempt be suspected. Pressure pads and 12-foot-tall (3.7 m) razor wire fences surround the perimeter, which is patrolled by heavily armed guards with silent attack dogs. In extreme cases of inmate misbehavior, the center of the prison houses an area known as "Z-Unit" or "The Black Hole," which can hold up to 148 prisoners in completely darkened and fully soundproofed cells. Each Z-Unit cell is equipped with a full set of body restraints that are built directly into the concrete bed.

Cheri Nolan, a Deputy Assistant Attorney General under President George W. Bush, toured ADX Florence in 2004 while a member of the advisory board for the National Institute of Corrections, a federal agency that supports correctional programs. Nolan stated, "I've never seen anything like it as far as the technology and physical set up. Once you're inside you really can't tell where you are - what's north, south, east or west. The way it's designed, it's an interesting kind of setup," Nolan said. "Because of the high value of targets they have there – on a world scale, whether it be a drug cartel or terrorists – they are as concerned with someone trying to get in to break someone out as much as they are about inmates trying to escape. The protection around the prison is pretty remarkable."[18]

The Federal Bureau of Prisons allowed the media to take a guided tour of ADX on September 14, 2007. Attending reporters remarked on "an astonishing and eerie quiet" within the prison as well as a sense of safety due to the rigorous security measures in place within the facility.[21] One journalist who took the tour, 60 Minutes producer Henry Schuster, said: "A few minutes inside that cell and two hours inside Supermax were enough to remind me why I left high school a year early. The walls close in very fast."[22]


The prison has come under far less scorn than comparable facilities at the state level, which tend to suffer heavily from overpopulation, low staff-to-inmate ratios and security issues inherent to attempting to enforce a supermax system in a non-purpose-built facility. Jamie Fellner of Human Rights Watch said after a tour of the facility, "The Bureau of Prisons has taken a harsh punitive model and implemented it as well as anybody I know."[8] Notorious escape artist Richard Lee McNair wrote to a journalist from his cell in 2009 to say "Thank God for prisons [...] There are some very sick people in here... Animals you would never want living near your family or the public in general. I don't know how corrections staff deal with it. They get spit on, shit on, abused and I have seen them risk their own lives and save a prisoner many times."[23]

In 2012, 11 inmates filed a federal class-action suit against the Federal Bureau of Prisons and officials who run ADX Florence, Bacote v. Federal Bureau of Prisons[24] now titled Cunningham v. Federal Bureau of Prisons.[25] The suit alleged chronic abuse, as well as failure to properly diagnose – and neglect of – prisoners who are seriously mentally ill.[26] As of March 2015 settlement negotiations were underway with the help of a federal magistrate and some improvements had been made by the Bureau of Prisons.[15]

In May 2013, ADX Florence was ranked #1 as one of the ten worst prisons in the United States, in the opinion of Mother Jones magazine.[27]

Notable current inmates

This section is about notable inmates who are currently held at Florence ADX. For a list of notable former inmates, see List of former inmates of US Penitentiary, Florence ADX.

Foreign terrorists

This list contains foreign citizens who committed or attempted to commit terrorist attacks against United States citizens and interests.

All sentences are without parole, as parole is not afforded to prisoners sentenced under federal law since 1987.

Inmate Name Register Number Photo Status Details
Moussaoui, ZacariasZacarias Moussaoui 51427-054 9999-99-99Serving 6 life sentences. Al-Qaeda operative, pleaded guilty to terrorism conspiracy charges in 2005 for playing a key role in planning the September 11 attacks by helping the hijackers obtain flight lessons, money and material used in the attacks.[28]
Ramzi Yousef
Mahmud Abouhalima
Mohammed Salameh
Eyad Ismoil
9999-99-99Yousef: Life sentence plus 240 years Abouhhalima: 1,300 months. Scheduled for release in 2102. Salameh: Life sentence. Ismoil: 240 years. Scheduled for release in 2204. Convicted in 1994 of terrorism conspiracy and other charges in connection with the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, which killed six people and injured over 1000. Yousef was also convicted in 1996 of planning Project Bojinka, a foiled plot conceived by senior Al-Qaeda member Khalid Sheikh Mohammed to bomb twelve planes in a 48-hour period.[29]
Mohamed Al-Owhali
Wadih el-Hage
Khalfan Mohamed
Mohammed Odeh
Ahmed Ghailani
Khalid al-Fawwaz
9999-99-99Serving life sentences. Al-Qaeda operatives; convicted in connection with the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, Africa, which were conceived by Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden; the bombings killed 224 people and injured over 4000.[30][31][32][33]
Abu Hamza al-Masri 67495-054 Serving a life sentence under the name Mustafa Kamel Mustafa. Egyptian cleric and former associate of late Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden; extradited from the UK in 2012; convicted in 2014 of masterminding the 1998 kidnapping of Westerners in Yemen and establishing a terrorist training camp in Oregon in 1999.[34]
Reid, RichardRichard Reid 24079-038 9999-99-99Serving 3 life sentences plus 110 years. Al-Qaeda operative; pleaded guilty in 2002 to attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction in connection with his 2001 attempt to detonate explosive devices hidden in his shoes on a plane traveling from Paris to Miami; known as the "Shoe Bomber."[35]
Abdulmutallab, UmarUmar Abdulmutallab 44107-039 9999-99-99Serving 4 life sentences plus 50 years. Al-Qaeda supporter and follower of the late militant cleric Anwar al-Awlaki; pleaded guilty in 2011 to attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction for trying to detonate an explosive sewn into his underwear on Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on Christmas Day 2009; known as the "Underwear Bomber."[36]
Eljvir Duka 61282-066 9999-99-99Serving a life sentence. Ethnic Albanian; convicted in 2008 of conspiracy to murder members of the US military and for plotting to attack soldiers at Fort Dix in New Jersey using automatic weapons; four others were also convicted.[37][38]
Ressam, AhmedAhmed Ressam 29638-086 2032-99-99Serving a 37-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2032.[39] Convicted in 2001 of terrorism conspiracy for planning to bomb Los Angeles International Airport on December 31, 1999 in what is known as one of the 2000 millennium attack plots.[40][41]
Trinidad, SimónSimón Trinidad 27896-016

2056-99-99Serving a 60-year sentence under the name Juvenal Ovidio Palmera Pineda; scheduled for release in 2056. Member of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), a guerrilla group on the U.S. State Department list of Terrorist Organizations; convicted in 2007 of terrorism conspiracy for his involvement in the 2003 kidnapping of three American military contractors.[42][43][44]
Najibullah Zazi 65114-053 Serving a life sentence. Al-Qaeda supporter; convicted in 2012 of plotting to conduct coordinated suicide bombings in the New York City subway system in September 2009; co-conspirators Najibullah Zazi and Zarein Ahmedzay pleaded guilty.[45][46]
Sulaiman Abu Ghaith 91969-054 Serving a life sentence. Al-Qaeda spokesman and son-in-law to Osama Bin Laden. Convicted in March 2014 for conspiring to kill Americans and providing material support to terrorists.[47]

Domestic terrorists

This list contains American citizens who committed or attempted to commit terrorist attacks against United States citizens and interests.

Inmate Name Register Number Photo Status Details
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev 95079-038 9999-99-99Sentenced to death by lethal injection. Participant in the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing; Dzhokhar planted a pressure cooker bomb at the direction of his brother Tamerlan Tsarnaev near the finish line. The attacks killed 3 and injured over 200. Tsarnaev will be transferred to USP Terre Haute when an execution date is set.[48][49]
Ahmed Omar Abu Ali 70250-083 9999-99-99Serving life sentence. Al-Qaeda operative; convicted in 2005 of plotting to assassinate U.S. President George W. Bush; federal prosecutors based their case on a confession Abu Ali provided to Saudi Arabian intelligence officials, which Abu Ali claimed was extracted by torture.[50][51]
Kaczynski, TheodoreTheodore Kaczynski 04475-046 9999-99-99Serving 8 life sentences. Known as the Unabomber; pleaded guilty in 1998 to building, transporting, and mailing explosives to carry out 16 bombings from 1978 to 1995 in a mail bombing campaign aimed at destroying modern technology, which killed three people and injured 23 others.[52][53]
Nichols, TerryTerry Nichols 08157-031 9999-99-99Serving 161 consecutive life sentences. Convicted of carrying out the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, which killed 168 people. Co-conspirator Timothy McVeigh was executed in Indiana in 2001.[54]
Padilla, JoséJosé Padilla 20796-424 Serving a 21-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2025.[55][56] Al-Qaeda operative and one of the first U.S. citizens to be designated as an enemy combatant after the September 11th attacks; convicted in 2007 of terrorism conspiracy for traveling overseas to attend an Al-Qaeda training camp in order to murder citizens of a foreign country.[57][58]
Rudolph, EricEric Rudolph 18282-058 9999-99-99Serving 4 consecutive life sentences. Member of the extremist group Army of God; pleaded guilty in 2005 to carrying out four bombings between 1996 and 1998, including the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta; three people were killed during the bombing spree.[59][60]
Shahzad, FaisalFaisal Shahzad 63510-054 9999-99-99Serving a life sentence. Al-Qaeda supporter; pleaded guilty to attempting to use a weapon of mass destruction and other charges in connection with the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt; received explosives training in 2009 from the terrorist organization Tehrik-i-Taliban in Pakistan.[61][62]
Naser Jason Abdo 80882-280 9999-99-99Serving 2 life sentences plus 60 years. U.S. Army private who refused to deploy to Afghanistan and went AWOL; convicted in 2012 of attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction for plotting to detonate a bomb at a restaurant near Fort Hood in Killeen, Texas when it was filled with soldiers in 2011.[63][64]
Joseph Konopka 20749-424 9999-99-99Serving a 13-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2019. Pleaded guilty in 2002 to causing blackouts in Wisconsin by damaging power substations and utility facilities, as well as storing potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide in the Chicago subway system; also known as "Dr. Chaos."[65][66]

Double agents

Inmate Name Register Number Photo Status Details
Gowadia, NoshirNoshir Gowadia 95518-022 2043-99-99Serving a 32-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2033. Former engineer for the U.S. Defense Department and principal designer of the B-2 stealth bomber; convicted in 2011 of using classified information to assist the People's Republic of China in producing cruise missiles with stealth technology.[67]
Hanssen, RobertRobert Hanssen 48551-083 9999-99-99Serving 15 consecutive life sentences. Former senior FBI agent assigned to counterintelligence; pleaded guilty in 2002 to espionage for passing classified information to the Soviet Union and later to Russia over a 20-year period; perpetrated what was regarded at the time as the worst intelligence disaster in U.S. history, betraying dozens of U.S. intelligence agents, several of whom were executed directly due to Hanssen's betrayal.[68][69]
Myers, WalterWalter Myers 29796-016 9999-99-99Serving a life sentence. Former intelligence analyst for the US State Department; pleaded guilty in 2009 to conspiracy to commit espionage for providing classified US national defense information to Cuba; his wife, Gwendolyn Myers, was sentenced to 6 years.[70][71]
Nicholson, HaroldHarold Nicholson 49535-083 2024-99-99Serving a 23-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2024. Highest-ranking CIA officer to be convicted of espionage; pleaded guilty in 1997 to passing classified information to Russia from 1994 to 1996; pleaded guilty in 2010 to attempting to collect payments from Russian agents for his past espionage activities.[72][73][74]

Cartel leaders

Inmate Name Register Number Photo Status Details
Garcia Abrego, JuanJuan Garcia Abrego 09935-000 9999-99-99Serving 11 consecutive life sentences. Convicted in 1996 of operating the Gulf Cartel, a criminal enterprise that smuggled thousands of tons of cocaine and marijuana into the U.S. from Mexico over a 16-year period.[75]
Cárdenas Guillén, OsielOsiel Cárdenas Guillén 62604-079 2025-99-99Serving a 25-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2025. Succeeded Juan García as leader of the Gulf Cartel; extradited to the US from Mexico in 2007 and pleaded guilty to threatening to murder U.S. law enforcement agents, drug trafficking and money laundering.[76][77]

Organized crime figures

Inmate Name Register Number Photo Status Details
James Marcello 99076-012 Serving a life sentence. Reputed "Front Boss" of the Chicago Outfit; convicted of racketeering conspiracy for participating in or ordering 18 murders and directing criminal activities including extortion, illegal gambling, loansharking, and bribery.[78][79]
Luis Felipe
Gustavo Colon
9999-99-99Felipe: Life plus 45 years. Colon: Life sentence. Leaders of the Latin Kings gang; convicted in 1996 and 2000 of murder conspiracy and racketeering for running a criminal enterprise whose members engage in murder, assault, armed robbery, and drug trafficking; Felipe is known as "King Blood," Colon as "La Corona."[80][81][82]
Ruben Castro
Raul Leon
Francisco Martinez
9999-99-99Serving life sentences. Leaders of the Mexican Mafia; convicted of racketeering and murder conspiracy for running violent drug trafficking operations.[83][84][85][86]
Joseph Hernandez
Tex Hernandez
James Morado
Gerald Rubalcaba
Cornelio Tristan
9999-99-99Serving life sentences. Leaders of the Nuestra Familia gang, which engages in drug trafficking, extortion and murder inside and outside of prisons in California; arrested as part of Operation Black Widow in 2001; pleaded guilty to racketeering charges in 2004.[87]
Tyler Bingham
Barry Mills
9999-99-99Serving life sentences. Aryan Brotherhood prison gang founders; transferred to ADX in 2006 after being connected to violent gang activities in prison; convicted of murder, murder conspiracy, and racketeering for ordering the killing of two African-American inmates at USP Lewisburg in Pennsylvania.[88][89]
Silverstein, ThomasThomas Silverstein 14634-116 2095-99-99Serving a 90-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2095. Aryan Brotherhood prison gang leader (considered one of the most dangerous inmates in the federal prison system); transferred to ADX after murdering Correction Officer Merle Clutts at USP Marion in 1983 while serving a sentence for bank robbery. Silverstein's crime was the reason for the construction of ADX.[90]
Hoover, LarryLarry Hoover 86063-024 9999-99-99Serving 6 life sentences. Leader of the Gangster Disciples in Chicago; sentenced to life in state prison in 1973 for murder; convicted in 1997 of drug conspiracy, extortion, money laundering, and running a continuing criminal enterprise for leading the gang from state prison.[91][92]
Fort, JeffJeff Fort 92298-024 2038-99-99Serving an 80-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2039. Founder of the El-Rukn (Black P. Stones) gang in Chicago; convicted of drug trafficking charges in 1983; convicted of terrorism conspiracy in 1987 for plotting to commit attacks inside the U.S. in exchange for weapons and $2.5 million from Libya.[93][94]
Mack, O. G.O. G. Mack 30063-037 2044-99-99Serving a 50-year sentence under his actual name, Omar Portee; scheduled for release in 2044. Founder of the United Blood Nation gang; convicted in 2002 of racketeering and murder conspiracy, as well as narcotics and weapons charges.[95]
Kaboni Savage 58232-066 Sentenced to death on June 3, 2013. Philadelphia drug kingpin; convicted in 2013 of 12 counts of murder in aid of racketeering for ordering six drug-related homicides, as well as the firebombing of the home of a federal witness which killed two adults and four children.[96][97]
Kehoe, ChevieChevie Kehoe 21300-009 9999-99-99Serving 3 consecutive life sentences. Murderer and white supremacist. Convicted in 1998 of the torture-murders of William, Nancy, and Sarah Mueller. Serving 3 life sentences.
Perry Roark 53975-037 Serving a life sentence. Founder of Dead Man Incorporated, a prison gang active in four states; pleaded guilty in 2012 to leading a racketeering enterprise which engaged in murder and threats to commit murder, armed robbery, drug trafficking and extortion.[98][99]

Other crimes

Inmate Name Register Number Photo Status Details
Casillas, BenBen Casillas 17911-054 9999-99-99Serving a 135-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2122. Founder of the Bay of Pigs betrayal operation; made millions of dollars from the forced labor of cult members; convicted in 2004 of racketeering and child molestation for having sex with underage members; known by supporters as Dr. Leno.[100][101]
Hale, MatthewMatthew Hale 15177-424 2037-99-99Serving a 40-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2037. Founder of the neo-nazi group World Church of the Creator; convicted in 2004 of soliciting the murder of Federal Judge Joan Lefkow for ruling against him in a copyright lawsuit brought by a bigger church with the same name.[102][103]
McNair, RichardRichard McNair 13829-045 9999-99-99Serving 2 life sentences on a state murder charge from North Dakota in 1987. Held at ADX due to multiple prison escapes; escaped from the Ward County Jail in Minot, ND in 1987 by using lip balm to slip out of handcuffs, from the ND State Penitentiary in Bismarck in 1992 by crawling through a ventilator duct, and from USP Pollock in Louisiana in 2006 by mailing himself out of prison in a crate.[104][105]
Swango, MichaelMichael Swango 08352-424 9999-99-99Serving 3 life sentences. Physician and serial killer; pleaded guilty in 2000 to fatally poisoning four patients; has been linked to scores of other deaths.[106][107]

In fiction

In the Alex Cross series of books written by James Patterson, ADX Florence houses Cross' longtime nemesis and former FBI agent Kyle Craig until he escapes.

The prison was referenced in the Breakout Kings season one finale episode "Where In The World Is Carmen Vega" as a maximum-security prison in Colorado to which Vega was sent at the end of the episode, and in several Hawaii Five-0 episodes referencing where Wo-Fat was sent.

The prison makes an appearance in the graphic novel I Am Legend: Awakening where the character John Edward Lord is left to die when the prison is abandoned, escapes but then returns to fight creatures in a last stand battle.

In Law & Order: Special Victims Unit: Season 9, Episode 6, Svengali (6 Nov. 2007), the imprisoned serial killer, Robert Morton, agrees to make a helpful court appearance for ADA Casey Novak in exchange for a transfer to a Federal Prison, seeking an improvement over his current situation. Morton foils Novak's intent but she retaliates by keeping her word and sending him to Florence SuperMax.

In NCIS: New Orleans, where the militia general would be sent because he made a deal with the Syrians to kill Navy Seals.

See also


  1. "BOP: Weekly Population Report". Retrieved 2014-03-18.
  2. "USP Florence ADMAX Contact Information." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on December 30, 2009.
  3. "Zoning Map." (Archived 2013-04-15 at WebCite) City of Florence, Colorado. Retrieved on December 30, 2009.
  4. Fernandes, Edna (2006-05-04). "Supermax prison, the Alcatraz of the Rockies". London: The Times. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
  5. Bosworth, Mary. The U.S. Federal Prison System. SAGE, 2002. 108. Retrieved from Google Books on October 14, 2010. ISBN 0-7619-2304-7, ISBN 978-0-7619-2304-6.
  6. "ADX Visiting Guidelines" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Prisons. May 7, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  7. "America's 10 Worst Prisons: ADX". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Taylor, Michael (28 December 1998). "The Last Worst Place". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  9. Supermax Prisons: High-Tech Dungeons and Modern-Day Torture
  10. Perkinson, Robert (September 22, 1994). "Shackled justice: Florence federal penitentiary and the new politics of punishment.". Social Justice. Crime and Social Justice Associates. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  11. Pilkington, Ed. "ADX Florence supermax prison: the Alcatraz of the Rockies". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  12. "Fast Facts: Supermax Prison". Fox News Channel. May 4, 2006. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  13. DLR Group
  14. "Life sentence for Faisal Shahzad, could join shoe bomber in Colorado". 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  15. 1 2 Mark Binelli (March 26, 2015). "Inside America's Toughest Federal Prison". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  16. Shane, Scott. "Beyond Guantánamo, a Web of Prisons for Terrorism Inmates." The New York Times. December 10, 2011. Retrieved on December 12, 2011.
  17. USP Florence ADMAX - Bureau of Prisons
  18. 1 2 Kalinowski, Bob (May 1, 2013). "Accused guard killer moved to Colorado". The Citizens' Voice. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  19. "Fast Facts: Supermax Prison" - Fox News - May 04, 2006
  20. "How to Survive a Supermax Prison". ABC News. August 2, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
  21. Frieden, Terry. " Reporters get first look inside mysterious Supermax prison" - CNN - September 14, 2007
  22. "My Trip to SuperMax". CBS News. October 14, 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
  23. Bayens, Stuart P. Deadmonton: Richard Lee McNair 'Last Link on the Left.' May 16, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  24. Case 1:12-cv-01570 Complaints and Exhibits The United States District Court for the District of Colorado, retrieved 20 June 2012
  25. Richard P. Matsch (November 26, 2012). "Harold Cunningham, John v. Federal Bureau of Prisons". Find a Case. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  26. Cohen, Andrew (18 June 2012). "An American Gulag: Descending into Madness at Supermax". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  27. "America's 10 Worst Prisons: ADX". Mother Jones.
  28. "Indictment of ZACARIAS MOUSSAOUI". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  30. Warren Richey. "Ahmed Ghailani gets life sentence for Al Qaeda bombing of US embassies". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  31. Weiser, Benjamin (2010-11-17). "Acquittal on All but One Charge for Ghailani, Ex-Detainee". The New York Times.
  33. "Two Terrorists - A Portrait Of Wadih El Hage, Accused Terrorist | Hunting Bin Laden | FRONTLINE". PBS. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  34. Wald, Jonathan; Andrew Carey (5 October 2012). "Radical Islamist Abu Hamza al-Masri extradited to U.S.". CNN. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  35. "Held in darkness for the rest of his natural life". The Telegraph. London. 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2007-12-07.
  36. Davey, Monica (2011-10-12). "Would-Be Detroit Plane Bomber Pleads Guilty, Ending Trial". The New York Times.
  37. "Five Radical Islamists Convicted of Conspiring to Kill Soldiers at Fort Dix". US Department of Justice. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  38. Reuters (April 28, 2009). "3 Brothers Sentenced to Life for Holy War Plot at Ft. Dix". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  39. "Terrorist sentenced to 37 years in millennium plot". USA Today. The Associated Press. October 24, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  40. "22 Years For Millennium Bomb Plot". CBS News.
  41. Schwartz, John (2010-02-03). "Appeals Court Throws Out Sentence in Bombing Plot, Calling It Too Light". The New York Times.
  42. "#07-494: 07-11-07 Senior Member of FARC Narco-Terrorist Organization Found Guilty of Hostage-Taking Conspiracy". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  43. World War 4 Report. "FARC negotiator gets Colombia's max —in US prison | World War 4 Report". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  44. "Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) - Terrorist Groups". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  45. Secret, Mosi (2012-11-16). "Medunjanin, Convicted of Subway Bomb Plot, Gets Life Sentence". The New York Times.
  46. "FBI — Al Qaeda Operative Sentenced to Life Imprisonment in One of the Most Serious Terrorist Threats to the United States Since 9/11". Retrieved 2013-02-12.
  47. "Abu Ghaith, a Bin Laden Adviser, Is Sentenced to Life in Prison". The New York Times. 2014-09-23.</
  48. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  50. All Things Considered (2005-11-22). "Jury Finds Abu Ali Guilty on Terrorism Charges". NPR. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  51. Pilkington, Ed (2009-07-10). "Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado blocked Barack Obama books requested by detainee". The Guardian. London.
  52. "Unabomber Guilty Plea". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  53. MacFarquhar, Neil (1996-04-04). "ON THE UNABOMBER'S TRACK: THE VICTIMS;At the Places Where Bombs Killed, a Day for Memories and Nervous Optimism". The New York Times.
  54. "Nichols and McVeigh Partners in crime". CNN. 1997-11-03.
  55. "Terror suspect Padilla charged". CNN. 2005-11-22.
  57. "Padilla sentenced on terror charges - US news - Security -". MSNBC. 2008-01-22. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  58. "#07-624: 08-16-07 Jose Padilla and Co-Defendants Convicted of Conspiracy to Murder Individuals Overseas, Providing Material Support to Terrorists". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  59. "NBC: Victims irate over Rudolph's lack of remorse - US news - Crime & courts -". MSNBC. 2005-04-13. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  60. "Why did Rudolph do it?". CNN. 2005-04-11. Archived from the original on 2012-02-07.
  61. "USDOJ: Faisal Shahzad Pleads Guilty in Manhattan Federal Court to 10 Federal Crimes Arising from Attempted Car Bombing in Times Square". 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  62. Goldman, Henry; Tannenbaum, Mark (2010-05-02). "New York Averts 'Deadly Event' as Police Disarm Car Bomb in Times Square". Bloomberg.
  63. "Army private gets 2 life sentences for plan to attack soldiers". 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  64. "USAO Press Release - | ATF". 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  65. "FBI — History". FBI.
  66. "Man who hid cyanide in CTA tunnel sentenced". Chicago Tribune.
  67. "Hawaii Man Sentenced to 32 Years in Prison for Providing Defense Information and Services to People's Republic of China". United States Department of Justice. 2011-01-25. Retrieved 2012-12-21.
  68. "Accused spy Hanssen could face death penalty". CNN. 2001-05-16.
  69. Shannon, Elaine (2002-05-04). "Robert Hanssen Gets Ready for His Closeup". Time.
  70. Hsu, Spencer S. (2010-07-17). "Walter Myers, State Dept. analyst who spied for Cuba, gets life; wife 6 years". The Washington Post.
  71. "Former State Department Official Sentenced to Life in Prison for Nearly 30-year Espionage Conspiracy". United States Department of Justice. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
  72. TIM WEINER (1997-06-06). "C.I.A. Traitor, Saying He Wanted Cash for Family, Gets 23 Years - New York Times". Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  73. "CNN - CIA turncoat sentenced to 23 years in prison - June 5, 1997". Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  74. Nigel Duara (2011-01-18). "Harold Nicholson, Ex-CIA Spy, Gets 8 More Years". Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  75. "U.S. Jury Convicts Mexican on Drug Charges". The New York Times. 1996-10-17.
  76. "Extradition: Past cases highlight limits - Brownsville Herald: Valley". Brownsville Herald. 2011-03-05. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  78. Associated Press (September 11, 2007). "5 Guilty in Chicago Mob Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  79. Sweeney, Annie (February 10, 2012). "Judge orders reputed onetime head of Chicago mob back to Chicago from California prison". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  80. Richardson, Lynda (1996-11-20). "Leader of Latin Kings Is Convicted in Slayings". The New York Times.
  81. "UNITED STATES v. FELIPE, Docket Nos. 97-1155, 97-1186 and 97-1484., June 19, 1998 - US 2nd Circuit | FindLaw". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  82. Johnson, Dirk (1997-09-21). "A Jailed Chicago Gang Leader Is Charged as a Drug Criminal". The New York Times.
  84. "USAO/CDCA Press Release". 2006-09-12. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  85. Mozingo, Joe; Winton, Richard (2006-09-13). "Drug Web Reportedly Spun in Cell". Los Angeles Times.
  86. "Feds Aim to Dismantle L.A.'s 18th Street Gang". NPR. 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  87. "Nuestra Familia, Our Family". Nuestra Familia, Our Family. 2005-06-26. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  88. "Aryan Brotherhood Leaders Convicted of Murder". NPR. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  89. "SuperMax prison is super lax, court cases allege". CNN. 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
  90. "America's Most Isolated Federal Prisoner Describes 10,220 Days in Extreme Solitary Confinement". 2011-05-05. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  91. "DEA Briefs & Background, Law Enforcement, Major Operations, Larry Hoover & The Gangster Disciples". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  92. "Larry Hoover Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story". Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  93. "Jeff Fort Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story". 1947-02-20. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  94. "GANG CHIEF GUILTY IN RIVAL'S SLAYING". The New York Times. 1988-10-20.
  95. Weiser, Benjamin (2003-04-15). "Founder of East Coast Bloods Is Given 50 Years". The New York Times.
  96. "Indictment in firebomb that killed 6 Overall, Kaboni Savage is accused of 12 murders linked to one of the city's most violent drug gangs.".
  97. "Philadelphia Drug Kingpin Sentenced to Death, Co-defendant to Face Life in Prison - OPA - Department of Justice".
  98. Archived January 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  99. Justin Fenton (2013-01-07). "Leader of Dead Man Inc. prison gang renounces group at sentencing - tribunedigital-baltimoresun". Retrieved 2015-10-12.
  100. Southern Poverty Law Center. "Nuwaubian Nation of Moors". Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  101. "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Dwight D. York, A.k.a. Malakai Z. York, Etc., Defendant-appellant, 428 F.3d 1325 (11th Cir. 2005)". Justia Law.
  102. "Matt Hale | Southern Poverty Law Center". 2003-01-08. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  103. "FBI — Matthew Hale Convicted of Plotting Judge's Murder". Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  104. "America's Most Wanted with John Walsh". AMW. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  105. "Escaped Murderer Richard Lee McNair". 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  106. "Life In Jail For Poison Doctor". CBS News.
  107. ABC News. "Swango Pleads Guilty To Ohio Slaying". ABC News.

Further reading

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ADX Florence.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.