Aladin (protein)

Aliases AAAS, AAA, AAASb, ADRACALA, ADRACALIN, ALADIN, GL003, aladin WD repeat nucleoporin
External IDs MGI: 2443767 HomoloGene: 9232 GeneCards: AAAS
RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 12: 53.31 – 53.32 Mb Chr 15: 102.34 – 102.35 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Aladin, also known as adracalin, is a nuclear envelope protein that in humans is encoded by the AAAS gene.[3] It is named after the achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome (triple A syndrome) which occurs when the gene is mutated.


Aladin is a component of the nuclear pore complex.[4][5]

Clinical significance

Mutations in the AAAS gene are responsible for Triple A syndrome (also known as Allgrove Syndrome).[6]


  1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  3. Tullio-Pelet A, Salomon R, Hadj-Rabia S, Mugnier C, de Laet MH, Chaouachi B, Bakiri F, Brottier P, Cattolico L, Penet C, Bégeot M, Naville D, Nicolino M, Chaussain JL, Weissenbach J, Munnich A, Lyonnet S (November 2000). "Mutant WD-repeat protein in triple-A syndrome". Nature Genetics. 26 (3): 332–5. doi:10.1038/81642. PMID 11062474.
  4. Kind B, Koehler K, Lorenz M, Huebner A (December 2009). "The nuclear pore complex protein ALADIN is anchored via NDC1 but not via POM121 and GP210 in the nuclear envelope". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 390 (2): 205–10. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.09.080. PMID 19782045.
  5. Cho AR, Yang KJ, Bae Y, Bahk YY, Kim E, Lee H, Kim JK, Park W, Rhim H, Choi SY, Imanaka T, Moon S, Yoon J, Yoon SK (June 2009). "Tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of ALADIN, the absence of which causes human triple A syndrome". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 41 (6): 381–6. doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.6.043. PMC 2705858Freely accessible. PMID 19322026.
  6. "Entrez Gene: AAAS achalasia, adrenocortical insufficiency, alacrimia (Allgrove, triple-A)".

Further reading

  • Jühlen R, Idkowiak J, Taylor AE, Kind B, Arlt W, Huebner A, Koehler K (2015). "Role of ALADIN in human adrenocortical cells for oxidative stress response and steroidogenesis". PloS One. 10 (4): e0124582. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124582. PMID 25867024. 
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. 
  • Weber A, Wienker TF, Jung M, Easton D, Dean HJ, Heinrichs C, Reis A, Clark AJ (December 1996). "Linkage of the gene for the triple A syndrome to chromosome 12q13 near the type II keratin gene cluster". Human Molecular Genetics. 5 (12): 2061–6. doi:10.1093/hmg/5.12.2061. PMID 8968764. 
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S (October 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. 
  • Handschug K, Sperling S, Yoon SJ, Hennig S, Clark AJ, Huebner A (February 2001). "Triple A syndrome is caused by mutations in AAAS, a new WD-repeat protein gene". Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (3): 283–90. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.3.283. PMID 11159947. 
  • Sandrini F, Farmakidis C, Kirschner LS, Wu SM, Tullio-Pelet A, Lyonnet S, Metzger DL, Bourdony CJ, Tiosano D, Chan WY, Stratakis CA (November 2001). "Spectrum of mutations of the AAAS gene in Allgrove syndrome: lack of mutations in six kindreds with isolated resistance to corticotropin". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 86 (11): 5433–7. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.11.8037. PMID 11701718. 
  • Schmittmann-Ohters K, Huebner A, Richter-Unruh A, Hauffa BP (2002). "Clinical and novel molecular findings in a 6.8-year-old Turkish boy with triple A syndrome". Hormone Research. 56 (1-2): 67–72. doi:10.1159/000048093. PMID 11815731. 
  • Goizet C, Catargi B, Tison F, Tullio-Pelet A, Hadj-Rabia S, Pujol F, Lagueny A, Lyonnet S, Lacombe D (March 2002). "Progressive bulbospinal amyotrophy in triple A syndrome with AAAS gene mutation". Neurology. 58 (6): 962–5. doi:10.1212/wnl.58.6.962. PMID 11914417. 
  • Cronshaw JM, Matunis MJ (May 2003). "The nuclear pore complex protein ALADIN is mislocalized in triple A syndrome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (10): 5823–7. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.5823C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1031047100. PMC 156285Freely accessible. PMID 12730363. 
  • Prpic I, Huebner A, Persic M, Handschug K, Pavletic M (May 2003). "Triple A syndrome: genotype-phenotype assessment". Clinical Genetics. 63 (5): 415–7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0004.2003.00070.x. PMID 12752575. 
  • Roubergue A, Apartis E, Vidailhet M, Mignot C, Tullio-Pelet A, Lyonnet S, de Villemeur TB (March 2004). "Myoclonus and generalized digestive dysmotility in triple A syndrome with AAAS gene mutation". Movement Disorders. 19 (3): 344–6. doi:10.1002/mds.10660. PMID 15022193. 
  • Brooks BP, Kleta R, Caruso RC, Stuart C, Ludlow J, Stratakis CA (June 2004). "Triple-A syndrome with prominent ophthalmic features and a novel mutation in the AAAS gene: a case report". BMC Ophthalmology. 4: 7. doi:10.1186/1471-2415-4-7. PMID 15217518. 
  • Huebner A, Kaindl AM, Knobeloch KP, Petzold H, Mann P, Koehler K (November 2004). "The triple A syndrome is due to mutations in ALADIN, a novel member of the nuclear pore complex". Endocrine Research. 30 (4): 891–9. doi:10.1081/ERC-200044138. PMID 15666842. 
  • Storr HL, Clark AJ, Priestley JV, Michael GJ (2005). "Identification of the sites of expression of triple A syndrome mRNA in the rat using in situ hybridisation". Neuroscience. 131 (1): 113–23. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.10.029. PMID 15680696. 
  • Di Nardo G, Tullio-Pelet A, Annese V, Stanghellini V, Barbara G, Latiano A, Andriulli A, Cremon C, Salvioli B, Volta U, Corinaldesi R, Lyonnet S, De Giorgio R (May 2005). "Idiopathic achalasia is not allelic to alacrima achalasia adrenal insufficiency syndrome at the ALADIN locus". Digestive and Liver Disease. 37 (5): 312–5. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2004.11.006. PMID 15843079. 
  • Li X, Ji C, Gu J, Xu J, Jin Z, Sun L, Zou X, Lin Y, Sun R, Wang P, Gu S, Mao Y (June 2005). "Molecular cloning and characterization of AAAS-V2, a novel splice variant of human AAAS". Molecular Biology Reports. 32 (2): 127–31. doi:10.1007/s11033-004-6939-9. PMID 16022285. 
  • Brooks BP, Kleta R, Stuart C, Tuchman M, Jeong A, Stergiopoulos SG, Bei T, Bjornson B, Russell L, Chanoine JP, Tsagarakis S, Kalsner L, Stratakis C (September 2005). "Genotypic heterogeneity and clinical phenotype in triple A syndrome: a review of the NIH experience 2000-2005". Clinical Genetics. 68 (3): 215–21. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2005.00482.x. PMID 16098009. 
  • Papageorgiou L, Mimidis K, Katsani KR, Fakis G (January 2013). "The genetic basis of triple A (Allgrove) syndrome in a Greek family". Gene. 512 (2): 505–9. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.10.008. PMID 23073554. 

External links

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