3rd millennium


In contemporary history, the third millennium is a current period of time that began on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 3000 of the Gregorian calendar.[1][2] It is the third and current period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era.[2][3]


The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Events of the 3rd millennium
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
21st century 2001 African Union established
2003-2009 War in Darfur
2010 Arab Spring[4]
2011-present Libyan Crisis
1964-present Colombian conflict
2001 September 11 attacks[5]
2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt
2006-present Mexican Drug War
2003-2011 Iraq War
2011 Tōkohu earthquake and tsunami
2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
2011-present Syrian Civil War
2015 Mina stampede
2004-2013 Enlargement of the European Union
2008 Russo-Georgian War
2014 Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation
2015 November 2015 Paris attacks
2000 Autonomous Bougainville Government established
2013 Tasmanian Bushfires[6]

Predicted events

As this millennium is currently in progress, its first two decades of 21st century (the past 2000s and the current 2010s), are the subject of the historian's attention. The remaining part of the 21st century (2020s to 2090s) and longer-term trends (22nd to 30th century) are researched in futures studies. Here are some possible events that will happen in those particular years:

Time capsules

Astronomical events

21st century

22nd century

23rd century

24th century

25th century

26th century

27th century

28th century

29th century

Biological events

Calendric predictions

Technological predictions

Social predictions

Significant people

The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Significant people of the 3rd millennium AD
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
21st century Muammar Gaddafi
Hosni Mubarak
Desmond Tutu
George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Donald Trump
Bill Gates
Osama bin Laden
Hu Jintao
Narendra Modi
Elizabeth II
Vladimir Putin
Angela Merkel
Silvio Berlusconi
Malcolm Turnbull
John Key
Peter O'Neill

Inventions and discoveries

Inventions and discoveries
Communication and technology Math and science Manufacturing Transportation and
space exploration
  1. Smartphone
  2. Mobile operating system
  3. Virtual Reality
  4. IPv6
  1. X-ray astronomy[45]
  2. Poincaré conjecture[46]
  3. Higgs boson[47]
  4. First observation of gravitational waves[48]
  1. Graphene
  1. Mars Orbiter Mission[49]

Centuries and decades

21st century 2000s[lower-alpha 1][lower-alpha 2] 2010s 2020s 2030s 2040s 2050s 2060s 2070s 2080s 2090s
22nd century 2100s 2110s 2120s 2130s 2140s 2150s 2160s 2170s 2180s 2190s
23rd century 2200s 2210s 2220s 2230s 2240s 2250s 2260s 2270s 2280s 2290s
24th century 2300s 2310s 2320s 2330s 2340s 2350s 2360s 2370s 2380s 2390s
25th century 2400s 2410s 2420s 2430s 2440s 2450s 2460s 2470s 2480s 2490s
26th century 2500s 2510s 2520s 2530s 2540s 2550s 2560s 2570s 2580s 2590s
27th century 2600s 2610s 2620s 2630s 2640s 2650s 2660s 2670s 2680s 2690s
28th century 2700s 2710s 2720s 2730s 2740s 2750s 2760s 2770s 2780s 2790s
29th century 2800s 2810s 2820s 2830s 2840s 2850s 2860s 2870s 2880s 2890s
30th century 2900s 2910s 2920s 2930s 2940s 2950s 2960s 2970s 2980s 2990s


  1. 2000 is generally considered the last year of the 2nd millennium, but there is some dispute.
  2. 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium.


  1. United States Naval Observatory, "The 21st Century and the 3rd Millennium:When Did They Begin?" (Washington, DC, June 14, 2011).
  2. 1 2 "When and where did the new Millennium officially start, and why?". Royal Observatory Greenwich
  3. Associated Press (2001-01-01). "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
  4. The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
  5. "How much did the September 11 terrorist attack cost America?". 2004. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  6. "Fires rage across Tasmania". abc.net.au. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2015-10-25.
  7. Diduch, Mary (April 27, 2009). "U. celebrates Old Queens bicentennial". The Daily Targum. Rutgers University: College Media Network. Retrieved June 16, 2009. At the ceremony, a time capsule was revealed containing several items from today to leave for the University in 2109, at the building’s tricentennial commemoration.
  8. HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2117 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  9. Articles – Occultation – OPT Telescopes Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Optcorp.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  10. HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2125 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  11. "Occultation - Mutual planetary transits and occultations - Encyclopedia II". Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
  12. Dr. Lance A. M. Benner (May 28, 2013). "(285263) 1998 QE2 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning". NASA/JPL Asteroid Radar Research. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
  13. Griffith Observatory (non accessible)
  14. Solar eclipse of May 5, 2600
  15. Solar eclipse of June 14, 2151
  16. 1 2 Mutual Planetary Transits; Fifteen millennium catalog; Period 2 001 AD - 3 000 AD Archived January 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. [meteorite-list] Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years, by Ron Baalke, on Friday August 22, 2003 at 09:04:54 -0700
  18. [meteorite-list] Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years, par Ron Baalke, on Friday August 22, 2003 at 09:04:54 -0700
  19. "No rainforest, no monsoon: get ready for a warmer world". NewScientist.
  20. Pimm, Stuart; et al. (2006). "Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions". PNAS. 103 (29): 10941–10946. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604181103. PMC 1544153Freely accessible. PMID 16829570.
  21. Dunham, Will. "Melting Sea Ice May Doom Emperor Penguins, Study Finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
  22. Nevans-Pederson, Mary (2008-03-13). "No St. Pat's Day Mass allowed in Holy Week". Dubuque Telegraph Herald. Woodward Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  23. http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/easter.php
  24. Rebecca Boyle (23 February 2012). "Japanese Construction Company Plans Space Elevator By 2050". Australian Popular Science. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  25. "Our future energy" (PDF). The Danish government. The Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy. November 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-26.
  26. Enoch, Nick (February 29, 2012). "World's oldest nuclear power station closes... but it will take 90 more years and £954m to clear it completely". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  27. New Mega-City Challenge – Concept. Geekwidget (2010-03-29). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  28. city in pyramid on YouTube
  29. "Stanford to host 100-year study on artificial intelligence". Stanford University. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  30. "Study to Examine Effects of Artificial Intelligence". The New York Times. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  31. "One-Hundred Year Study of Artificial Intelligence: Reflections and Framing". Eric Horvitz. 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  32. Wall, Mike (2012-05-11). "Dead Satellite Envisat May Be Space Junk for 150 Years". Huffington Post. Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
  33. Kaku, Michio (April 26, 2004). "How Advanced Could They Be?". Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
  34. "Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950-2050". U.S. Census Bureau. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
  35. 1 2 Todd, Emmanuel (2003). After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13102-X.
  36. Health and Science Correspondent Kate Kelland. "Who wants to live forever? Scientist sees aging cured". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
  37. "World population to reach 9.1 billion in 2050, UN projects". UN News Center. 24 February 2005.
  38. "Britain 'biggest in EU by 2050'". BBC News. 12 March 2009.
  39. Wilson, Dominic; Stupnytska, Anna (March 28, 2007). "The N-11: More Than an Acronym" (PDF). Global Economics Paper. 153.
  40. Laurance, Jeremy (2010-05-12). "Has the elixir of youth come of age?". The Independent. London: The Independent. Archived from the original on May 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-15.
  41. World population in 2300. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  42. Friedman, George (2009) The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century, Anchor, ISBN 0767923057.
  43. Y = Arctg X: The Hyperbola of the World Order, (Lanham: University Press of America, 2007).
  44. "Chronology – Quarter 1 1949".
  45. Mackenzie, Dana (2006-12-22). "The Poincaré Conjecture--Proved". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 314 (5807): 1848–1849. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1848. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17185565.
  46. "Higgs boson-like particle discovery claimed at LHC". BBC News. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  47. Castelvecchi, Davide; Witze, Witze (February 11, 2016). "Einstein's gravitational waves found at last". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19361. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  48. "India's Mars satellite successfully enters orbit, bringing country into space elite". The Guardian. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014. India has become the first nation to send a satellite into orbit around Mars on its first attempt, and the first Asian nation to do so.
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