2016 Turkish purges

2016 Turkish purges
Part of Turkish government – Gülen Movement conflict
2016 Turkish purges (Turkey)
Date 16 July 2016–10 August 2016

  • Country wide. Cities with high civil servant populations (Ankara, Istanbul)

Status Decreased
Turkey's government solidify control over military, judiciary, medias, education.
Over 110,000 judges, teachers, police and civil servants suspended or dismissed and 36,000 formally arrested[1]
Parties to the civil conflict
Gülen Movement
• Alleged supporters of Fethullah Gülen in civil service, education, journalism, judiciary and military
Peace at Home Council
Lead figures
Fethullah Gülen (religious leader)
Units involved

Turkey Loyalists of the Turkish Armed Forces[2]
Turkey National Intelligence Organization
Turkey Turkish parliament
Turkey Judiciary in Turkey

Turkey National Police

Gülenist Officers
Gülenist Elements in Judiciary in Turkey
Gülenist Education in Turkey

Gülenist Media in Turkey

15,846 detained[3] (10,012 soldiers, 1,481 judiciary members)[4][5]
8,133 of the detained had been arrested[6][7][8][9]

15 universities, 1,043 private schools, 1,229 charities and foundations, 19 trade unions, 35 medical institutions, 16 television channels, 23 radio stations, 45 daily newspapers, 15 magazines and 29 publishing houses were shut down.

The 2016 Turkish purges are an ongoing series of purges by the government of Turkey in reaction to the July 15th failed coup d'état. After the immediate arrest of military personnel involved in the coup attempt, arrests were expanded to include further elements of the Turkish military service, as well as various civil servants and private businesses. These later actions, reflecting a power struggle between secularist and Islamist political elites in Turkey,[10] which began to be known as a purge, affected people who were not active in nor aware of the coup as it happened, but who were alleged to be connected with the Gülen movement, a group which the government blames for the coup.

Tens of thousands of public servants and soldiers were purged in the first week following the coup.[11] For example, on 16 July 2016, just one day after the coup was foiled, 2,745 judges were dismissed and detained.[12][13] This was followed by the dismissal, detention or suspension of over 100,000 officials,[14][15][16] a figure that had increased to over 110,000 by early November 2016,[17] and over 125.000 after the Nov. 22th decree.[18]

Since early September, the post-coup emergency state allowed a turn against Kurdish groups, most notably with the dismissal of about 12,000 Kurdish teachers and 24 elected mayors for alleged links with PKK terrorism.[19]


In January 2014, during a major corruption inquiry in Turkey, 96 judges and prosecutors, including the chief prosecutor of İzmir, Huseyin Bas, were transferred to new locations, ending the investigations. Bas was transferred to Samsun. Altogether 120 judges and prosecutors were reassigned.[20] At the time, The Daily Telegraph described the events as "the biggest purge of the judiciary in [Turkey's] history".[21][22] From 2014 to mid-2016, repeated purges of civilian, military and judicial officials took place in Turkey, mainly aimed at followers of Fethullah Gülen, a former colleague of the Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.[23]

Sectors affected

During the first post-coup speech Erdoğan could address to the nation upon landing at Atatürk airport, he said, "This uprising is a gift from God to us because this will be a reason to cleanse our army". [24][25][26]

An extensive purge of the Turkish civil service began with President Erdoğan warning his opponents that "they will pay a heavy price for this."[27] The New York Times described the purges as a "counter-coup" and expected the president to "become more vengeful and obsessed with control than ever, exploiting the crisis not just to punish mutinous soldiers but to further quash whatever dissent is left in Turkey".[27]

On 18 July, U.S. State Secretary John Kerry urged Turkish authorities to halt the increasing crackdown on its citizens, indicating that the crackdown was meant to "suppress dissent". French Foreign Minister and former Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault voiced concern, warning against a "political system which turns away from democracy". [28]

The United Nations have been accused of being unresponsive against the purges,[29] while at the same time also failing to condemn the coup and resulting violence, due to disagreement between Egypt and other Security Council members on the wording of a resolution in that direction.[30]


General Bekir Ercan Van (far left), the commander of Incirlik Air Base, was accused of complicity in the attempted coup.

Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım announced on 16 July 2016 that 2,839 soldiers of various ranks had been arrested.[31] Among those arrested were at least 34 generals or admirals.[32] A number of students of the Kuleli Military High School, enough to fill five buses, were also arrested.[33] By 18 July 2016, a total of 103 generals and admirals have been detained by Turkish authorities in connection with the coup.[34][35]

Yasemin Özata Çetinkaya, the governor of Sinop Province, was removed from her duty and her husband, a colonel in the Turkish army, arrested.[36] Turkish military conducted a raid on the Turkish Air Force Academy in Istanbul as well.[37]

Major General Cahit Bakir, who commanded Turkish forces under NATO in Afghanistan, and Brigadier General Sener Topuc, responsible for education and aid in Afghanistan, have been detained by authorities in Dubai in connection with Turkey's failed coup.[38]

General Bekir Ercan Van, the commander of Incirlik Air Base, which the U.S. uses to carry out airstrikes against ISIL, was arrested by Turkish authorities for his alleged role in plotting the failed military coup. He sought asylum from the United States but was denied.[39]

Police and judiciary

The building of the Turkish Court of Cassation in Ankara.

On 16 July 2016, the Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors of Turkey (HSYK) removed 2,745 Turkish judges from duty and ordered their detention.[12][13][40] Of these judges, 541 were in administrative judiciary and 2,204 were in criminal judiciary. This amounted to approximately 36% of all judges in Turkey at the time.[41] Two judges from the Constitutional Court of Turkey, Alparslan Altan and Erdal Tercan, were detained by Turkish authorities for supposed ties with the Gülen movement,[42] while 5 members of the HSYK had their membership revoked and 10 members of the Turkish Council of State were arrested on charges of being members of the parallel state.[43] Furthermore, arrest warrants were issued for 48 members of the Council of State and 140 members of the Court of Cassation.

By 18 July 2016, the Turkish government had suspended 8,777 government officials across the country for alleged links to the coup perpetrators. Among those suspended include 7,899 police officers, 614 gendarmerie officers, 47 district governors and 30 regional governors.[44] As of 19 July 2016, 755 judges and prosecutors had been arrested in relation to the coup attempt.[45]


Hüseyin Avni Mutlu, ex-governor of İstanbul, was dismissed on 19 July 2016.[46] Deputy Mayor of Istanbul's Şişli District, Cemil Candaş, was shot in the head in his office by an unidentified assailant on 18 July 2016. Meanwhile, Turkish parliament was evacuated due to unidentified security concerns.[47]

Civil service

Following a series of arrests and purges throughout the government, Prime Minister Yıldırım announced on 18 July 2016 that annual leave for all civil servants was suspended, and all those on leave were to return to work. Over three million civil servants were affected. In addition, public sector employees were banned from leaving the country.[48]

By the evening of 19 July, the number of public sector employees suspended had reached 49,321. In the Ministry of Finance, more than 1500 employees were suspended. In the Prime Ministry, 257 employees, including six advisers, were suspended. The Presidency of Religious Affairs suspended 492 employees, among them three provincial muftis. The numbers of suspended personnel in the National Intelligence Organization and Ministry of Family and Social Policy were 100 and 393 respectively.[49][50]

On 20 July 2016, the Youth and Sports Minister Akif Çağatay Kılıç announced that 245 personnel within his ministry had been laid off. The Energy Ministry reports 300 employees were let go, and the Customs Ministry indicated 184 employees were dismissed.[51]


By far the greatest purge was in the Ministry of National Education, where 15,200 teachers were suspended. The licenses of 21,000 teachers in the private sector were also cancelled. The Council of Higher Education asked all deans of state and private universities, numbering 1577, to resign. 626 educational institutions, mostly private, were shut down.[52] For example, in Burdur, one school, one cram school and four student hostels were shut down on 20 July.[53] In addition, a travel ban was placed on academics, preventing them from leaving the country.[54]

On 23 July 2016, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan shut down 1,043 private schools, 1,229 charities and foundations, 19 trade unions, 15 universities and 35 medical institutions in his first emergency decree under the newly adopted emergency legislation.[55]


The licenses of 24 radio and television channels and the press cards of 34 journalists accused of being linked to Gülen were revoked.[56][57] Two people were arrested for praising the coup attempt and insulting President Erdoğan on social media.[58] On 25 July, Nazlı Ilıcak was taken into custody.[59]

On 27 July 2016, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan shut down 16 television channels, 23 radio stations, 45 daily newspapers, 15 magazines and 29 publishing houses in another emergency decree under the newly adopted emergency legislation. The closed outlets notably include Gülen-affiliated Cihan News Agency, Samanyolu TV and the previously leading newspaper Zaman (including its English-language version Today's Zaman),[60] but also the opposition daily newspaper Taraf which was known to be in close relations with the Gulen Movement.[61]

In late October 2015, Turkish authorities shut down 15 media outlets, including one of the world’s only women’s news agencies, and detained the editor-in-chief of the prominent secularist Turkish newspaper Cumhuriyet, "on accusations that they committed crimes on behalf of Kurdish militants and a network linked to the US-based cleric Fethullah Gülen".[62]


Government authorities had revoked almost 11,000 passports by 22 July;[63] by 30 July, more than 50,000 passports were cancelled.[64]


Turkish President Recep Erdogan gave the United States an ultimatum, demanding the extradition of Fethullah Gülen, the cleric believed to be behind the failed July 15 coup attempt.[65][66] Turkey demands Greece to extradite eight Turkish soldiers that had fled after the coup.[67] On 11 August 2016, Bulgaria extradited Abdullah Büyük, a Turkish businessman being linked with the Gülen movement.[68]

Purges by numbers

Mr Hagel, in civilian suit, shakes hands with General Öztürk, in uniform.
U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel shakes hands in 2014 with General Erdal Öztürk, later arrested in connection with the failed coup.

Initial purges

The bulk of the purges happened in the 10 days following the coup. The government releasing data documenting the issue :

Header text Suspended Arrested Notes Reference/Date
Turkish Armed Forces 1,684 96 2016-07-27
Turkish Land Forces 1,069 N/A 87 generals
Turkish Naval Forces 154 N/A 32 admirals
Turkish Air Force 461 N/A 30 generals
Ministry of the Interior 8,777 N/A 2016-07-18
Ministry of Health 5,581 N/A 115 managers, 1504 doctors 2016-07-28
Ministry of Culture and Tourism 110 N/A 2016-07-26
Ministry of National Education 15,200 N/A 2016-07-19
MNE licensed Education institutions 21,000 N/A
Ministry of Development 82 N/A 2016-07-25
Ministry of Economy 15 N/A 2016-07-25
Ministry of Forest and Water Management 197 N/A 2016-07-25
Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications 529 N/A 2016-07-25
Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology 560 N/A 2016-07-25
Ministry of Family and Social Policy 599 N/A 2016-07-25
Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning 70 N/A 2016-07-25
Turkish Universities 5,342 N/A 2016-08-12
İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality 768 N/A 2016-07-29
Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors 648 N/A 2016-08-10
Totals 81,494 20,355 2016-08-13

Later purges

On August 17th, the government dismissed 2,300 more officers from the police force, 136 military officers and 196 employees from the information technology authority. [69]

On 18 August, arrest warrants were issued for 187 suspects, including CEOs of leading companies in Turkey, with prosecutors also ordering the seizure of their assets.[70]

On September 2nd, Turkey announced a purge of about 11,500 teachers with alleged links to PKK. The move was denounced by Kurdish and Turkish opposition parties for lacking due process and evidences. An anonymous former Turkish diplomat said the move sharply weakened the pacifist wing of Kurdish voices, pushing the Kurdish movement toward more radical means.[19]

On September 12, Turkey removed two dozen elected mayors, members of the opposition Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), for alleged links to Kurdish militants.[71]

On October 4, Turkish authorities suspend nearly 12,800 more police officers from duty over their suspected links with U.S.-based cleric Fethullah Gulen.[72]

On October 29th, by decree, Turkey dismissed 10,131 more civil servants, while about 15 more media outlets were closed for alleged ties to terrorist organizations and cleric Fethullah Gülen.[73][74]

In early November, security forces began mass arrests of opposition Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) MPs, including co-leaders Selahattin Demirtaş and Figen Yüksekdağ. Internet and social web services were blocked across southeastern Turkey.[75][76] Out of 59 HDP's MPs, 15 were researched, 12 MPs were detained, 2 MPs were travelling abroad, and one not localized.[77]

On November 22th, a decree announced 15 726 dismissals (security forces:7600, ministry of inerior:2700, education:1200).[78] People were affected for being “related, belonging to or in contact with terror organizations and structures that are considered by the National Security Council as acting against national security.”[18] Passports of these affected people were canceled.[18]
With this decree 550 associations, 9 medias, and 19 private medical structures have been closed.[78] The financial assets and properties of those organizations were to be seized by the Turkish Treasury.[18]

Human rights

Human rights in Turkey are governed by international law treaties, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights that Turkey signed in 2000, that take precedence over Turkish legislation according to Article 90 of the 1982 Constitution.[79] After protesters chanted for reintroduction of the death penalty,[80] abolished by Turkey in 2004, Erdoğan stated that this was a possibility that would be discussed in parliament, and that in a democracy, the will of the people must be respected.[81][82] On 21 July, the Turkish government announced that it would suspend the European Convention on Human Rights during a temporary state of emergency.[83]

On 24 July, Amnesty International called for the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture to make an emergency visit to Turkey to observe the conditions in which the detainees were held.[84]

Detainees' conditions

According to Amnesty International, during the July 2016 purges, detainees were denied food for up to three days and water for up to two days, were denied medical treatment, were reportedly raped with police truncheons or fingers, and were subjected to other forms of torture.[84] Amnesty said that three hundred male soldiers held in the Ankara police headquarters were beaten during their detention, with injuries including bruises, cuts and broken bones. Forty soldiers were unable to walk because of their injuries, and two were unable to stand.[84] Amnesty also said that detainees' shirts were covered in blood during their interrogations by prosecutors and that detainees during the purges were mostly prevented from contacting their families and lawyers.[84]

Given overcrowded conditions, the Turkish government published a decree on August 16th announcing that 38,000 inmates whose criminal offense pre-dated July 1st were now eligible for sentence reduction.[85] Inmates with two years or less to serve are eligible, while inmates who have served half of their sentence can ask for parole. The decree applies to crimes committed before the July 1st, 2016, excluding convictions for murder, domestic violence, sexual abuse, terrorism or crimes against the state.[85]

Arrest of human rights activists

Turkish human rights lawyer Orhan Kemal Cengiz was detained for three days in July 2016. He was "provisionally released" and remains subject to a travel ban.[86][87]

International school closures

About 1000 Gülen movement schools exist worldwide, with 300 of them in Turkey. Turkey requested closure of affiliated schools in 50 countries.[88]


The purges were criticized by Western governments and human rights groups. Human Rights Watch warned the Turkish government against "[using] the coup attempt to justify a witch-hunt against those it regards as opponents".[23] Andrew Gardner, Amnesty International's researcher for Turkey, said: "We are witnessing a crackdown of exceptional proportions in Turkey at the moment. While it is understandable, and legitimate, that the government wishes to investigate and punish those responsible for this bloody coup attempt, they must abide by the rule of law and respect freedom of expression."[94]

Conversely, the purges were praised by Judicial Commission of Indonesia chairman Aidul Fitriciada Azhari. Azhari pointed to the purges as a positive example of external oversight of a judicial system and the exercise of executive power by a judicial commission, referring to the Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors.[95]

Effect on Turkey's EU accession bid

Johannes Hahn, the European Commissioner dealing with Turkey's bid to become a member state of the European Union (EU), said that it appears Turkey's government had prepared arrest lists of political opponents before the coup attempt and had been waiting for the right time to act.[96] EU High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini condemned the purges, saying: "What we're seeing especially in the fields of universities, media, the judiciary, is unacceptable."[97]

Horst Seehofer, the minister-president of Bavaria, urged the EU to suspend Turkey's accession negotiations: "If one sees how Turkey is dismantling the rule of law ...then these (EU membership) negotiations must be stopped immediately. No democratic constitutional state acts like this."[98]

On 22 November 2016 the European Parliament voted 497 to 37 in favour of a non binding freeze on membership talks with Turkey in response to "disproportionate repressive measures taken in Turkey since the failed military coup attempt."[99]

University associations

The Czech University Council compared the purges of educational institutions in Turkey to events which took place under Communist dictatorship in former Czechoslovakia.[100]

The European University Association (EUA) joined by the European University Foundation (EUF) “strongly and unconditionally” condemned the forced resignation of hundreds of deans from higher education institutions in Turkey in the wake of the failed coup attempt in the country, and called on all European governments, universities and scholars to speak out against these developments and to support democracy in Turkey, including institutional autonomy and academic freedom for scholars and students.[101][102][103]


Belgian Foreign Minister Didier Reynders said Turkish authorities' reaction to the failed coup needed to be "proportionate," and that he was alarmed by the arrests of judges and calls for reinstatement of the death penalty against coup participants.[104]

French Foreign Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault voiced concern, warning against a "political system which turns away from democracy" in response to the purges.[28]

United States

U.S. President Barack Obama said he was concerned by pictures showing the rough treatment of some of the arrested coup plotters, some of whom appeared stripped to their underwear and handcuffed behind their backs.[105] U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry urged Turkish authorities to halt the crackdown on its citizens, expressing concern that the aim of the crackdown was to "suppress dissent."[28]

The commander of U.S. Central Command, General Joseph Votel, said that several of the U.S. military’s closest partners in the Turkish military have been jailed.[106] In response, Turkish President Erdoğan accused Votel of being on the side of coup plotters.[107] On 29 July, Votel said in a statement: "Any reporting that I had anything to do with the recent unsuccessful coup attempt in Turkey is unfortunate and completely inaccurate. ... We appreciate Turkey's continuing cooperation and look forward to our future partnership in the counter-ISIL fight."[108]

United Nations

In July 2016, the U.S., with the support of Britain, drafted language for the United Nations Security Council that would have expressed grave concern over the situation, called upon on all parties to "respect the democratically elected government of Turkey" and the rule of law, and urged the parties to show restraint and avoid violence. However, Egypt (led by President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, a former general who took power in a 2013 coup) blocked the proposed statement.[109]

In August 2016, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein decried the purge. Zeid said that while he opposed the coup attempt, the wide-ranging purge showed a "thirst for revenge" that was alarming.[110] Later than month, a group of experts in the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights issued a joint statement saying that the purges may violate international law,[111] specifically Turkey's obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.[112] The statement said: "While we understand the sense of crisis in Turkey, we are concerned that the government's steps to limit a broad range of human rights guarantees go beyond what can be justified in light of the current situation. Turkey is going through a critical period. Derogation measures must not be used in a way that will push the country deeper into crisis."[111]


Can Dündar, Editor-in-chief of the Turkish daily Cumhuriyet, described the purges as part of a historical pattern of political power in Turkey shifting back and forth between the secular military versus religious institutions, with democrats in the middle having little power to prevent the repeated oscillations, but worse than previous cycles. He described the 2016 purges as "the biggest witch-hunt in Turkey's history".[113] Historians and analysts including Henri J. Barkey, Director of the Middle East Program of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, compared the 2016 Turkish purges to Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution that started in 1966 and the Iranian Cultural Revolution in which Iranian academia was purged during 1980–1987.[114] The government of Turkey has been analysed to blame western forces and raise anti-americanism in order to distract the public from real intranational tensions, as well as to take an upper ground for negotiations.[115][116][117] According to the New York Times, "Searching for historical parallels, analysts have made comparisons with Joseph McCarthy’s anti-Communist witch hunt in 1950s America, the Stalinist purges of the 1930s and the Cultural Revolution in China in the 1960s and ’70s."[14]

See also


  1. Turkey suspends 291 navy personnel over links to failed coup, Reuters
  2. "The Latest: Parliament speaker says lawmakers safe". AP.org. Associated Press. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  3. "Erdogan back in Ankara as thousands hit by Turkey purge". guardian.ng. Guardian Newspapers. AFP. 20 July 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  4. "240 Turkey's regime supporters killed in failed coup attempt". kuna.net.kw. Istanbul: Kuwait News Agency. July 19, 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  5. "Military says 8,651 soldiers participated in Turkey's coup attempt". Hürriet Daily News. Ankara. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  6. "Turkey left reeling after failed coup". The Nubian Times. July 20, 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  7. "208 people killed by coup attempters: Turkey's PM". Hürriet Daily News. Ankara. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  8. "MEB'te 15 bin kişi açığa alındı, 21 bin öğretmenin lisansı iptal" (in Turkish). NTV (Turkey). Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  9. "Turkey says 103 generals, admirals detained after Turkey's failed coup attempt". Hürriet Daily News. July 18, 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  10. Metin Gurcan (12 October 2016). "Power struggle erupts in Turkey's security structure". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  11. "The Scale of Turkey's Purge Is Nearly Unprecedented". The New York Times. 2 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  12. 1 2 Frazer, Susan; Dominique, Soguel (16 July 2016). "Turkey quashes coup; Erdogan vows 'heavy price' for plotters". Austin American-Statesman/AP. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  13. 1 2 "Turkey's top judicial board HSYK orders detention of 2,745 Gülen-linked judges over coup attempt". dailysabah.com. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  14. 1 2 "Turks See Purge as Witch Hunt of 'Medieval' Darkness". The New York Times. 16 September 2016.
  15. "Turkey launches mass raids against 'Gulen-linked' businesses". ABC News. 18 August 2016.
  16. Sariyuce, Isil; Dewan, Angela (20 July 2016). "Turkey declares three-month state of emergency". CNN.com. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  17. "Turkey draws Western condemnation over arrest of Kurdish lawmakers". Reuters. 4 November 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  18. 1 2 3 4 NORDLAND, Rod; TIMUR, Safak (22 November 2016), 15,000 More Public Workers Are Fired in Turkey Crackdown
  19. 1 2 Kurds become new target of Ankara’s post-coup purges, 2016
  20. Butler, Daren; Tattersall, Nick (22 January 2014). "Turkish judicial purge brings corruption investigation to halt". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  21. Shirlock, Ruth (22 January 2014). "Turkey continues with huge purge of judges and police". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  22. Butler, Daren; Toksabay, Ece (16 January 2014). "Turkish prosecutors removed as judicial purge intensifies". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  23. 1 2 "Turkey: Protect Rights, Law After Coup Attempt". Human Rights Watch. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 19 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  24. Champion, Marc. "Coup Was 'Gift From God' for Erdogan Planning a New Turkey". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  25. Kingsley, Patrick (2016-07-17). "Turkey detains 6,000 over coup attempt as Erdoğan vows to 'clean state of virus'". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  26. "Turkey rounds up plot suspects after thwarting coup against Erdogan". Reuters. 2016-07-17. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  27. 1 2 "The Counter-Coup in Turkey". New York Times. 16 July 2016. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  28. 1 2 3 Robinson, Duncan; Srivastava, Mehul (18 July 2016). "US and EU leaders warn Turkey's Erdogan over post-coup crackdown". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  29. "UN Human Rights Bodies Silent on Turkey's Massive Crackdown". 2016-07-19. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  30. "Egypt blocks UN statement on Turkey after failed coup attempt". ABC News. 2016-07-16. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  31. "Başbakan Yıldırım'dan açıklama: Kalkışma bastırıldı, 161 şehit var". NTV. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  32. "Darbe girişiminde 34 general ve amiral gözaltında". Hürriyet. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  33. "Kuleli Askeri Lisesine düzenlenen operasyon tamamlandı". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  34. "Turkey dismisses 9,000 officials after failed coup". Al Arabiya English. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  35. "Turkey urged to protect rule of law". RTÉ. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  36. "Darbe girişimiyle ilgili 140 Yargıtay ve 48 Danıştay üyesi hakkında gözaltı kararı". T24. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  37. "Turkey coup attempt: Police and officials purged". BBC. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  38. "Two Afghan-based Turkish generals detained in Dubai after failed coup: CNN Turk". Reuters. 26 July 2016.
  39. "Erdogan Triumphs After Coup Attempt, but Turkey's Fate Is Unclear". The New York Times. 17 July 2016.
  40. Dolan, David (16 July 2016). MacSwan, Angus, ed. "Turkey removes more than 2,700 judges following coup attempt". Reuters. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  41. "TÜRKİYE GENELİ HAKİM VE CUMHURİYET SAVCISI KADRO DURUMU" (PDF) (in Turkish). hsyk.gov.tr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  42. "Gülen-linked Constitutional Court members Altan, Tercan detained after failed coup attempt". Daily Sabah. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  43. "HSYK, 2 bin 745 hakimi açığa aldı; 5 kişinin üyeliğini düşürdü!" (in Turkish). T24. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  44. "Interior Ministry suspends 8,777 officials in wake of Turkey's failed coup attempt". Hürriyet Daily News. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  45. "Turkey's post-coup purge reaches 20,000". Deutsche Welle. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  46. "Hüseyin Avni Mutlu görevden uzaklaştırıldı". Cumhuriyet. 19 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  47. Withnall, Andy (18 July 2016). "Turkey parliament 'evacuated due to imminent security threat'". The Independent. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  48. Osborne, Samuel (18 July 2016). "Turkey coup: PM suspends annual leave for over three million civil servants". The Independent. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  49. "Cumhuriyet tarihinin en büyük operasyonu; kamuda 49 bin 321 kişi görevden alındı". T24. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  50. Finkel, Isobel (19 July 2016). "Turkey Extends Purge to Universities, Asking All Deans to Go". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  51. "Turkish parliament dismisses eight executives as crackdown on Gülenists continues" (in Turkish). Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  52. "Turkey shuts 626 educational institutions -Turkish official". news.trust.org. Istanbul: Thomson Reuters Foundation. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  53. "Burdur'da FETÖ/PDY'ye yakınlığıyla bilinen bir özel okul, 4 pansiyon ve bir dershane mühürlendi" (in Turkish). CNN Türk. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  54. Shaheen, Kareem (20 July 2016). "Erdoğan declares three-month state of emergency in Turkey". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  55. Jones, Gareth; Gurses, Ercan (23 July 2016). "Turkey's Erdogan shuts schools, charities in first state of emergency decree". Reuters. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  56. "34 gazetecinin basın kartı iptal edildi" [34 journalists' press cards were revoked]. T24.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  57. Williams, Nathan (19 July 2016). "Turkey coup: Purge widens to education sector". BBC. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  58. Karaman; Zonguldak (20 July 2016). "Two arrested in Turkey for praising failed coup attempt on social media". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  59. "Nazlı Ilıcak için gözaltı kararı" [Detention Order for Nazli Ilıcak] (in Turkish). CNN Türk. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  60. Jones, Gareth; Gurses, Ercan (28 July 2016). "Turkey shuts scores of media outlets, sacks generals". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  61. "Turkish generals resign as government prepares to overhaul armed forces". The Guardian. AFP. 28 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  62. "Turkey shuts 15 media outlets and arrests opposition editor". The Guardian. 31 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  63. "Turkish Authorities Revoke 11,000 Passports in Wake of Failed Coup". Sputnik News. Moscow. Sputnik. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  64. Dearden, Lizzie (31 July 2016). "Turkey coup attempt: Government cancels 50,000 passports as global concern grows over crackdown". The Independent. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  65. "Turkey's Erdogan to US: Hand over exiled cleric Gulen". CNN. 11 August 2016.
  66. "Turkey officials to demand extradition of Fethullah Gülen from US". theguardian.com. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  67. "Turkey ups pressure on Greece to extradite soldiers who fled there after failed coup". euronews.com. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  68. "Controversy continues over Bulgaria's deportation of Büyük to Turkey". Sofia Globe. 12 August 2016.
  69. Fraser, Suzan (2016), Turkey to release 38,000 from jail; frees space for plotters, AP
  70. "Turkey launches mass raids against 'Gulen-linked' businesses", ABC, 18 August 2016. Accessed 24 August 2016.
  71. Turkey removes two dozen elected mayors in Kurdish militant crackdown, Reuters, Sep 12, 2016
  72. , Reuters http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-police-idUSKCN12408Z Missing or empty |title= (help)
  73. http://www.lemonde.fr/europe/article/2016/10/30/purges-en-turquie-plus-de-10-000-fonctionnaires-supplementaires-limoges_5022680_3214.html
  74. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-dismissals-idUSKBN12U04L
  75. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/04/turkey-arrests-pro-kurdish-party-leaders-mps
  76. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-37868441
  77. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2016/11/04/world/europe/ap-eu-turkey-explosion.html?ref=world
  78. 1 2 http://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2016/11/22/plus-de-15-000-fonctionnaires-supplementaires-limoges-en-turquie_5035887_3210.html
  79. Arat, Zehra F. Kabasakal (1 January 2011). "Human Rights in Turkey". University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 253 via Google Books.
  80. Mackey, Robert (21 July 2016). "Donald Trump Crams Two Errors Into One Statement on Turkey". theintercept.com. The Intercept. Retrieved 24 July 2016. It was revulsion at these massacres that prompted calls for Turkey to reintroduce the death penalty to deal with the guilty soldiers, and gave Erdogan popular support for the sweeping arrest of thousands accused of sympathizing with the coup plotters.
  81. "Turkey coup attempt: Erdogan signals death penalty return - BBC News". Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  82. "Erdogan says Turkey will consider reinstating death penalty". Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  83. "Turkey to temporarily suspend European Convention on Human Rights after coup attempt". Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  84. 1 2 3 4 "Turkey: Independent monitors must be allowed to access detainees amid torture allegations". Amnesty International. 24 July 2016. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  85. 1 2 Press, Associated (17 August 2016). "Turkey to free 38,000 people from prisons to make space for alleged coup plotters" via The Guardian.
  86. Sinclair-Webb, Emma (22 July 2016). "Dispatches: Turkey's State of Emergency". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  87. Turkey: Provisional release of Mr. Orhan Kemal Cengiz and travel ban against him, World Organisation Against Torture (July 26, 2016).
  88. Yalçin, Zübeyde (July 28, 2016). "Turkey calls 50 countries to close Gülenist schools". Daily Sabah. Istanbul. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  89. Sheikh Nor, Mohamed (July 18, 2016). "Somalia Shuts Schools Linked to Turkish Cleric After Failed Coup". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  90. Safarova, Durna (July 20, 2016). "Azerbaijan: University, Paper Closed as Anti-Gülen Cleanup Continues". Eurasianet.org. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  91. "Gülen-affiliated university closed in Azerbaijan". Daily Sabah. Baku. Andolu Agency. July 21, 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  92. "Turkey asks Pakistan to shut down Gulen-run schools". Business Standard. Islamabad. IANS. August 2, 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  93. Younis, Ahmed (August 6, 2016). "Sudan Closes Gulen Schools in Response to Turkish Government's Request". Asharq Al-Awsat. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  94. "Turkey: Media purge threatens freedom of expression". Amnesty International. 20 July 2016.
  95. Supreme Court urged to accept oversight to ensure reform. Jakarta Post, 23 July 2016. Accessed 7 November 2016.
  96. "Turkey coup attempt: Government had list of arrests prepared before rebellion, EU commissioner says". The Independent. 19 July 2016.
  97. "Erdogan announces army overhaul in latest post-coup shakeup". Reuters.com. 22 July 2016.
  98. "Merkel ally urges EU to suspend Turkey accession talks over purge". Reuters. 22 July 2016.
  99. "Majority of European Parliament votes to freeze EU membership talks with Turkey". dw.com. 24 November 2016.
  100. "Deputy PM seeks government motion over purge of education sector in Turkey". Radio Prague. 22 July 2016.
  101. "EUA Statement condemning the forced resignation of 1577 university deans". Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  102. "Turkey purge: EUA condemns move on university deans Hundreds of deans have been ordered to resign while academics have been told not to travel abroad for work in the wake of the failed coup". timeshighereducation.com. July 20, 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  103. "Statement condemning the forced resignation of university deans in Turkey". Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  104. Osborne, Samuel; Mortimer, Caroline (18 July 2016). "Turkey coup: World leaders call for 'restraint and moderation' as President Erdogan continues purge". Independent. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  105. "Turkey coup attempt: World leaders warn President Erdogan not to use uprising as excuse for crackdown as more than 6,000 arrested". The Telegraph. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  106. "Pentagon Allies Jailed in Turkey Amid Coup Backlash, General Says". The Wall Street Journal. 28 July 2016.
  107. "Turkey's Erdogan to drop lawsuits against people who insulted him". BBC News. 29 July 2016.
  108. "U.S. general denies involvement in Turkish coup attempt". Reuters. 29 July 2016.
  109. Michelle Nichols, Egypt blocks U.N. call to respect 'democratically elected' government in Turkey, Reuters (July 16, 2016).
  110. Stephanie Nebehay, U.N. rights boss decries purge in Turkey, voices concerns on China, Reuters (August 10, 2016).
  111. 1 2 Lizzie Dearden, Turkey coup attempt: UN warns Erdogan government purges could violate international law after 40,000 detained, The Independent (August 19, 2016).
  112. UN experts press Turkey to adhere to human rights obligations despite state of emergency, UN News Center (August 19, 2016).
  113. Dündar, Can (2016-07-22). "This is the biggest witch-hunt in Turkey's history". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2016-07-22. Retrieved 2016-07-22.
  114. Hubbard, Ben; Arango, Tim; Yeginsu, Ceylan (2016-07-22). "Failed Turkish Coup Accelerated a Purge Years in the Making". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-07-22.
  115. "Turkey's New Anti-Americanism". The New York Times. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  116. "Erdogan Says West Supports Terrorism". Associated Press. 2 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016 via The New York Times.
  117. "Turks Can Agree on One Thing: U.S. Was Behind Failed Coup". The New York Times. 3 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/2/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.