List of stock market crashes and bear markets

This is a list of stock market crashes and bear markets.


Name Dates Country Causes Ref
Kipper und Wipper 1623 Holy Roman Empire A financial crisis caused by debased (fraudulent) foreign coins minted in the Holy Roman Empire from 1621-1623, done to raise funds at the start of the Thirty Years' War [1]
Tulip mania Bubble 1637 Netherlands A bubble (1633–37) in the Netherlands during which contracts for bulbs of tulips reached extraordinarily high prices, and suddenly collapsed [2]
The Mississippi Bubble 1720 Kingdom of France Banque Royale by John Law stopped payments of its note in exchange for specie and as result caused economic collapse in France.
South Sea Bubble of 1720 1720 United Kingdom Affected early European stock markets, during early days of chartered joint stock companies
Bengal Bubble of 1769 1769 United Kingdom Primarily caused by the British East India Company, whose shares fell from £276 in December 1768 to £122 in 1784
Credit crisis of 1772 1772 United KingdomUnited States
Financial Crisis of 1791-92 1791 United States Shares of First bank of US boom and bust in Aug and Sept 1791. Groundwork of Alexander Hamilton's cooperation with the Bank of New York to end this event would be crucial in ending the Panic of 1792 next year.
Panic of 1796–97 1796 United KingdomUnited States
Panic of 1819 1819 United States
Panic of 1825 1825 United Kingdom
Panic of 1837 10 May 1837 United States
Panic of 1847 1847 United Kingdom
Panic of 1857 1857 United States
Panic of 1866 1866 United Kingdom
Black Friday 24 Sep 1869 United States
Panic of 1873 9 May 1873 Initiated the Long Depression in the United States and much of Europe
Paris Bourse crash of 1882 19 Jan 1882 France
Panic of 1884 1884
Encilhamento 1890 Brazil Lasting 3 years, 1890-1893, a boom and bust process that boomed in late 1880s and burst on early 1890s, causing a collapse in the Brazilian economy and aggravating an already unstable political situation. [3][4][5][6]
Panic of 1893 1893 United States
Panic of 1896 1896 United States
Panic of 1901 17 May 1901 United States Lasting 3 years, the market was spooked by the assassination of President McKinley in 1901, coupled with a severe drought later the same year.
Panic of 1907 Oct 1907 United States Lasting over a year, markets took fright after U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt had threatened to rein in the monopolies that flourished in various industrial sectors, notably railways.
Wall Street Crash of 1929 24 Oct 1929 United States Lasting over 4 years, the bursting of the speculative bubble in shares led to further selling as people who had borrowed money to buy shares had to cash them in, when their loans were called in. Also called the Great Crash or the Wall Street Crash, leading to the Great Depression.
Recession of 1937–38 1937 United States Lasting around a year, this share price fall was triggered by an economic recession within the Great Depression and doubts about the effectiveness of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal policy.
Kennedy Slide of 1962 28 May 1962 United States Also known as the 'Flash Crash of 1962' [7]
Brazilian Markets Crash of 1971 July 1971 Brazil Lasting through the 1970s and early-1980s, this was the end of a boom that started in 1969, compounded by the 1970s energy crisis coupled with early 1980s Latin American debt crisis. [8][9][10]
1973–74 stock market crash Jan 1973 United Kingdom Lasting 23 months, dramatic rise in oil prices, the miners' strike and the downfall of the Heath government.
Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash Aug 1982 Kuwait
Black Monday 19 Oct 1987 United States
Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Crash June 1989 Brazil Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Crash, due to its weak internal controls and absence of credit discipline, that led to its collapse, and of which it never recovered [11][12][13]
Friday the 13th mini-crash 13 Oct 1989 United States Failed leveraged buyout of United Airlines causes crash
Early 1990s recession July 1990 United States Iraq invaded Kuwait in July 1990, causing oil prices to increase. The Dow dropped 18% in three months, from 2,911.63 on July 3 to 2,381.99 on October 16,1990. This recession lasted approximately 8 months.
Japanese asset price bubble 1991 Japan Lasting approximately twenty years, through at least the end of 2011, share and property price bubble bursts and turns into a long deflationary recession. Some of the key economic events during the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble include the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the Dot-com bubble. In addition, more recent economic events, such as the late-2000s financial crisis and August 2011 stock markets fall have prolonged this period.
Black Wednesday 16 Sep 1992 United Kingdom The Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after they were unable to keep sterling above its agreed lower limit.
1997 Asian financial crisis 2 July 1997 Thailand Hong Kong Philippines South Korea Indonesia Investors deserted emerging Asian shares, including an overheated Hong Kong stock market. Crashes occur in Thailand, Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, and elsewhere, reaching a climax in the October 27, 1997 mini-crash.
October 27, 1997, mini-crash 27 Oct 1997 Global stock market crash that was caused by an economic crisis in Asia.
1998 Russian financial crisis 17 Aug 1998 Russia The Russian government devalues the ruble, defaults on domestic debt, and declares a moratorium on payment to foreign creditors.
Dot-com bubble 10 March 2000 United States Collapse of a technology bubble.
Economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks 11 Sep 2001 The September 11 attacks caused global stock markets to drop sharply. The attacks themselves caused approximately $40 billion in insurance losses, making it one of the largest insured events ever. See world economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks.
Stock market downturn of 2002 9 Oct 2002 Downturn in stock prices during 2002 in stock exchanges across the United States, Canada, Asia, and Europe. After recovering from lows reached following the September 11 attacks, indices slid steadily starting in March 2002, with dramatic declines in July and September leading to lows last reached in 1997 and 1998. See stock market downturn of 2002.
Chinese stock bubble of 2007 27 Feb 2007 China The SSE Composite Index of the Shanghai Stock Exchange tumbles 9% from unexpected selloffs, the largest drop in 10 years, triggering major drops in worldwide stock markets. [14][15][16]
United States bear market of 2007–09 11 Oct 2007 United States Till June 2009, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Nasdaq Composite and S&P 500 all experienced declines of greater than 20% from their peaks in late 2007. [17][18]
Financial crisis of 2007–08 16 Sep 2008 United States On September 16, 2008, failures of large financial institutions in the United States, due primarily to exposure of securities of packaged subprime loans and credit default swaps issued to insure these loans and their issuers, rapidly devolved into a global crisis resulting in a number of bank failures in Europe and sharp reductions in the value of equities (stock) and commodities worldwide. The failure of banks in Iceland resulted in a devaluation of the Icelandic króna and threatened the government with bankruptcy. Iceland was able to secure an emergency loan from the IMF in November. Later on, U.S. President George W. Bush signs the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act into law, creating a Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to purchase failing bank assets. Had disastrous affects on the world economy along with world trade. [19][20]
2009 Dubai debt standstill 27 Nov 2009 United Arab Emirates Dubai requests a debt deferment following its massive renovation and development projects, as well as the Great Recession. The announcement causes global stock markets to drop. [21]
European sovereign debt crisis 27 April 2010 Europe Standard & Poor's downgrades Greece's sovereign credit rating to junk four days after the activation of a 45-billion EUIMF bailout, triggering the decline of stock markets worldwide and of the Euro's value, and furthering a European sovereign debt crisis. [22][23][24]
2010 Flash Crash 6 May 2010 United States The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffers its worst intra-day point loss, dropping nearly 1,000 points before partially recovering. [25]
August 2011 stock markets fall 1 Aug 2011 Stock markets around the world plummet during late July and early August, and are volatile for the rest of the year.
2015–16 Chinese stock market crash 12 June 2015 China China stock market crash starts in June and continues into July and August. In January 2016, Chinese stock market experiences a steep sell-off which sets off a global rout. [26][27][28][29][30]
Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016 24 June 2016 United Kingdom European Union Australia China France Germany Hong Kong India Italy Japan South Korea Spain Sweden Taiwan United States World Markets tumble after the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union. Investors lost more than the equivalent of 2 trillion United States dollars on 24 June 2016, making this day the worst single day drop in history according to data from S&P Global. The losses were extended to a combined total of the equivalent of 3 trillion dollars by additional selling on 27 June 2016 according to data from S&P Global. [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]

See also


  1. "“Kipper und Wipper”: Rogue Traders, Rogue Princes, Rogue Bishops and the German Financial Meltdown of 1621-23" by Mike Dash, Smithsonian, March 29, 2012
  2. Dash, Mike "Tulipomania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower & the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused" 2001
  3. James D. Henderson, Helen Delpar & Maurice P. Brungardt "A Reference Guide to Latin American History" Richard Weldon Editor - M.E.Sharpe Inc. 2000, ISBN I563247445 page 172, 2nd column, "1890" (2nd paragraph)
  4. Jeffrey D. Needell; "A Tropical Belle Epoque: Elite Culture and Society in Turn-of-the-Century" Cambridge University Press 1987 Pages 10 & 12
  5. Gail D. Triner; "Banking and economic development: Brazil, 1889–1930" Palgrave™ 2000 ISBN 0-312-23399-X Pages 44–74
  6. Viscount of Taunay; "O Encilhamento; scenas contemporaneas da Bolsa do Rio de Janeiro em 1890, 1891 e 1892" (Portuguese) ("The Encilhamento: contemporary scenes of Rio Stock Exchange in 1890, 1891 & 1892") Editora Melhoramentos, Rio 1893
  7. "Back to the Future: Lessons From the Forgotten 'Flash Crash' of 1962"
  8. Gary Previts, Peter Walton & Peter Wolnizer "A Global History of Accounting, Financial Reporting And Public Policy; Americas - Volume 14B" The University of Sydney/The Accounting Foundation, Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2011 ISBN 9780857248114 Page 41, from the last paragraph
  9. Detailed PDF Academic work about the subject (Portuguese) UNICAMP june 2007
  10. Marta Barcellos & Simone Azevedo; "Histórias do Mercado de Capitais no Brasil" ("Histories of Financial Markets in Brazil") (Portuguese) Campus Elsevier Brazil 2011 ISBN 85-352-3994-4 Introduction and Chapter 4
  11. Markham, Jeffrey W. "A Financial History of the United States; Volume III (1970-2001)" M.E.Sharpe 2002 ISBN 0765607301 page 147, from last paragraph
  12. Article about the decline of Rio Stock Exchange. Last 3 paragraphs are about the 1989 crash
  13. Barcellos & Azevedo 2011, Pages 141-142; 149 to 151, and 154
  14. Chen, Shu-Ching Jean; Kwok, Vivian Wai-yin (27 February 2007). "Black Tuesday In China". Forbes. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  15. "Share sale knocks Chinese market". BBC News. 27 February 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  16. Han, Pliny (27 February 2007). "Chinese shares slump sharply, down 8.84%". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  17. Browning, E. S. (28 June 2008). "Dow Hits Bear-Market Territory, Signaling Woe for Economy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  18. Korkki, Phyllis (4 March 2007). "A Scary Tuesday Was No Black Monday". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  19. "IMF approves $2.1bn Iceland loan". BBC News. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  20. Sahadi, Jeanne (4 October 2008). "Bailout is law". CNN. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  21. Robertson, David (30 November 2009). "Investors face huge losses as debt-ridden Dubai World is abandoned by government". The Times. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  22. "Greek bonds rated 'junk' by Standard & Poor's". BBC News. 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  23. "Greece crisis: Euro markets hit again". BBC News. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  24. "Greece crisis deepens on global market sell-off". CNN. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  25. Moyer, Liz (7 May 2010). "Was The Market Mayhem A Mistake? Maybe Not". Forbes. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  26. Gillespie, Jethro Mullen, Ivana Kottasova and Patrick (2016-06-23). "Dow plunges over 600 points as U.K. 'earthquake' crushes global markets". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  27. "Brexit wipes $2tn off markets as Moody's lowers UK credit rating outlook". The Guardian. 25 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-25.
  28. "Brexit Backlash: Dow Closes Down More Than 600 Points". Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  29. "Brexit wounds: Stocks bloodied after U.K. shock". Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  30. Kirka, Danica; Lee, Youkyung (24 June 2016). "Stocks crash as UK vote to quit EU shocks investors". AP The Big Story. London. Associated Press. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  31. David, Javier E. (26 June 2016). "Brexit cost investors $2 trillion, the worst one day drop ever". CNBC. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  32. Krudy, Edward; Hunnicutt, Trevor (26 June 2016). Burns, Dan; Grebler, Dan, eds. "Post-Brexit global equity loss of over $2 trillion worst ever: S&P". Reuters. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  33. David, Javier E. (27 June 2016). "Brexit-related losses widen to $3 trillion in relentless 2-day sell-off". CNBC. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  34. "Brexit just made the Swedish stock market crash". Business Insider Nordic. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.


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