|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||332.48 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|Melting point||268 °C (514 °F)|
|(what is this?)|
17α-Hydroxypregnenolone is a pregnane (C21) steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position. This step is performed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) that is present in the adrenal and gonads. Peak levels are reached in humans at the end of puberty and then decline. High levels are also achieved during pregnancy.
This conversion is mediated by the enzyme 17,20 lyase. As such 17α-hydroxypregenolone represents an intermediary in the Δ5 pathway that leads from pregnenolone to DHEA. 17α-Hydroxypregneolone is also converted to 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, a prohormone for glucocorticosteroids and androstenedione through the activity of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.
There is some evidence that 17α-hydroxypregnenolone may have activity as a neurosteroid.
Measurements of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone are useful in the diagnosis of certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency 17α-hydroxypregnenolone is increased, while in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency levels are low to absent.
- Hill, M; Lukác, D; Lapcík, O; Sulcová, J; Hampl, R; Pouzar, V; Stárka, L (1999). "Age relationships and sex differences in serum levels of pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone in healthy subjects". Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. 37 (4): 439–47. doi:10.1515/CCLM.1999.072. PMID 10369116.
- Matsunaga, M; Ukena, K; Baulieu, EE; Tsutsui, K (2004). "7α-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of breeding newts by means of the dopaminergic system". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (49): 17282–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407176101. PMC 535386. PMID 15569930.
- Riepe FG, Mahler P, Sippell, Partsch CJ. Longitudinal Study of Plasma Pregnenolone and 17-Hydroxypregnenolone in Full-Term and Preterm Neonates at Birth and during the Early Neonatal Period. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2002) 87: 4301-4306