|Centuries:||15th century · 16th century · 17th century|
|Decades:||1480s · 1490s · 1500s · 1510s · 1520s · 1530s · 1540s|
|Years:||1509 · 1510 · 1511 · 1512 · 1513 · 1514 · 1515|
|1512 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2265|
|English Regnal year||3 Hen. 8 – 4 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||辛未年 (Metal Goat)|
4208 or 4148
— to —
壬申年 (Water Monkey)
4209 or 4149
|- Vikram Samvat||1568–1569|
|- Shaka Samvat||1433–1434|
|- Kali Yuga||4612–4613|
|Japanese calendar||Eishō 9|
|Minguo calendar||400 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2054–2055|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1512.|
- Middle of January – After Regent of Sweden Svante Nilsson has died on January 2, Eric Trolle is elected new Regent of Sweden. He is however ousted after only six months.
- February 18 – War of the League of Cambrai: Sack of Brescia by the French.
- April 11 – War of the League of Cambrai: Battle of Ravenna: French forces under Gaston of Foix, Duke of Nemours defeat the Spanish under Raymond of Cardona, but Gaston is killed in the pursuit.
- May 3 – The Fifth Council of the Lateran starts.
- May 26 – Selim I succeeds Bayezid II as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- July 23 – Sten Sture the Younger is elected new Regent of Sweden, thus deposing Eric Trolle from the post.
- August 10 – War of the League of Cambrai: English naval victory at the Battle of Saint-Mathieu over the French-Breton fleet. Both navies use ships firing cannon through ports, and each loses its principal ship — Regent and Marie-la-Cordelière — through a large explosion aboard the latter.
- Summer – War of the League of Cambrai: Ferdinand II of Aragon sends Don Fadrique de Toledo to complete the Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre.
- October 19 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
- October 21 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.
- November 1 – The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti, is exhibited to the public for the first time.
- António de Abreu discovers Timor island and reaches Banda Islands, Ambon Island and Seram.
- Francisco Serrão reaches the Moluccas.
- Juan Ponce de León discovers the Turks and Caicos Islands.
- Pedro Mascarenhas discovers Diego Garcia and reaches Mauritius in the Mascarene Islands.
- Moldavia becomes a vassal of the Turkish Empire, on the same conditions as Wallachia: the voivode will be designated by the Turks, but will be of the Orthodox faith. Also, the Turks are not allowed to build mosques, to be buried, to own land or to settle in the country.
- The Florentine Republic is dismantled and the Medici family comes back into power.
- The word "masque" is first used to denote a poetic drama.
- Wolverhampton Grammar School is founded by Sir Stephen Jenyns in England.
- Giggleswick School is founded by Rev James Carr in England.
- Paracelsus moves to Ferrara.
- Possible date - Nicolaus Copernicus begins to write Commentariolus, an abstract of what will eventually become his heliocentric astronomy De revolutionibus orbium coelestium; he sends it to other scientists interested in the matter by 1514.
- January 13 – Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, General Inquisitor of Spain, 1573–1595 (d. 1595)
- January 17 – Sibylle of Cleves, German noblewoman (d. 1554)
- January 31 – Henry, King of Portugal and Cardinal (d. 1580)
- February 3 – John Hamilton, archbishop of St Andrews (d. 1571)
- February 22 – Pedro Agustín, Catholic bishop (d. 1572)
- March 5 – Gerardus Mercator, Flemish-German cartographer (d. 1594)
- April 10 – James V of Scotland, King of Scots (d. 1542)
- April 23 – Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel, Chancellor of the University of Oxford (d. 1580)
- April 30 – George II, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels, Count of Glatz (d. 1553)
- July 5 – Cristoforo Madruzzo, Catholic cardinal (d. 1578)
- July 25 – Diego de Covarubias y Leyva, Spanish jurist, Roman Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Cuenca (d. 1577)
- August 27 – Friedrich Staphylus, German theologian (d. 1564)
- November 4 – Hu Zongxian, Chinese general (d. 1565)
- November 9 – Jon Simonssøn, Norwegian humanist (d. 1575)
- November 11 – Marcin Kromer, Prince-Bishop of Warmia (d. 1589)
- December 21 – Boniface IV, Marquess of Montferrat, Italian nobleman (d. 1530)
- date unknown
- January 2 – Svante Nilsson, regent of Sweden since 1504 (b. 1460)
- February 2 – Hatuey, Taíno chief
- February 22 – Amerigo Vespucci, Italian merchant and cartographer, discoverer of the New World (b. 1454)
- April 11 – Gaston de Foix, French military commander (b. 1489)
- May 21 – Pandolfo Petrucci, ruler of Siena (b. 1452)
- May 26 – Bayezid II, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1447)
- June 20 – Goto Yujo, swordsman, artisan (b. 1440)
- August 12 – Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (b. 1463)
- August 15 – Imperia La Divina, Roman courtesan (b. 1481)
- September 19 – John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, Scottish peer (b. 1440)
- Grun, Bernard (1991). The Timetables of History (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 229. ISBN 0-671-74919-6.
- Gingerich, Owen (2004). The Book Nobody Read: Chasing the Revolutions of Nicolaus Copernicus. New York: Walker. ISBN 0-8027-1415-3.
- Koyré, Alexandre (1973). The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0504-1.