|Centuries:||15th century · 16th century · 17th century|
|Decades:||1470s · 1480s · 1490s · 1500s · 1510s · 1520s · 1530s|
|Years:||1506 · 1507 · 1508 · 1509 · 1510 · 1511 · 1512|
|1509 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2262|
|English Regnal year||24 Hen. 7 – 1 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)|
4205 or 4145
— to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
4206 or 4146
|- Vikram Samvat||1565–1566|
|- Shaka Samvat||1430–1431|
|- Kali Yuga||4609–4610|
|Japanese calendar||Eishō 6|
|Minguo calendar||403 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2051–2052|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1509.|
- February 3 – Battle of Diu: The Portuguese defeat a coalition of Indians, Muslims and Italians.
- April 21 – Henry VIII becomes King of England (for 38 years) on the death of his father, Henry VII.
- April 27 – Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict and excommunication for refusing to cede part of Romagna to papal control.
- May 14 – Battle of Agnadello: French forces defeat the Venetians.
- June 11
- June 19 – Brasenose College, Oxford is founded by a lawyer, Sir Richard Sutton, of Prestbury, Cheshire, and the Bishop of Lincoln, William Smyth.
- June 24 – King Henry VIII of England and Queen Consort Catherine of Aragon are crowned.
- July 26 – Krishnadevaraya ascends the throne of the Vijayanagara Empire.
- September 10 – Constantinople earthquake destroys 109 mosques and kills an estimated 10,000 people.
- September 11 – Portuguese fidalgo Diogo Lopes de Sequeira becomes the first European to reach Malacca, having crossed the Gulf of Bengal.
- Erasmus writes his most famous work, In Praise of Folly.
- The Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy is founded.
- Royal Grammar School, Guildford, is founded by Robert Beckingham.
- St Paul's School is founded by John Colet, Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, London.
- Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Blackburn, is founded as a grammar school for boys.
- Afonso de Albuquerque becomes the governor of the portuguese settlements in India.
- Earliest known pocket watch made at Nuremberg, Germany by Peter Henlein.
- January 1 – Guillaume Le Testu, French privateer (d. 1573)
- January 2 – Henry of Stolberg, German nobleman (d. 1572)
- January 3 – Gian Girolamo Albani, Italian cardinal (d. 1591)
- January 25 – Giovanni Morone, Catholic cardinal (d. 1580)
- February 2 – John of Leiden, Dutch Anabaptist leader (d. 1536)
- February 10 – Vidus Vidius, Italian surgeon and anatomist (d. 1569)
- March 27 – Wolrad II, Count of Waldeck (1539–1575) (d. 1575)
- April 23 – Afonso of Portugal, Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1540)
- July 4 – Magnus III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Lutheran bishop of the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin (d. 1550)
- July 10 – John Calvin, French religious reformer (d. 1564)
- July 25 – Philip II, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken, German noble (d. 1554)
- August 3 – Étienne Dolet, French scholar and printer (d. 1546)
- August 7 – Joachim I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, German prince (d. 1561)
- August 25 – Ippolito II d'Este, Catholic cardinal (d. 1572)
- October 20 – Arthur Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, Scottish prince (d. 1510)
- November 4 – John, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels and Count of Glatz (d. 1565)
- date unknown
- January – Adam Kraft, sculptor and architect
- March 14 – Giovanni Antonio Sangiorgio, Italian cardinal
- April 21 – King Henry VII of England (b. 1457)
- May 28 – Caterina Sforza, countess and regent of Forli (b. 1463)
- June 29 – Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII of England (b. 1443)
- July – João da Nova, Portuguese explorer (b. c. 1460)
- July 11 – William II, Landgrave of Hesse (b. 1469)
- July 16 – Mikalojus Radvila the Old, Lithuanian nobleman (b. c. 1450)
- date unknown