14th century

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Decades: 1300s 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s
1350s 1360s 1370s 1380s 1390s
Categories: Births – Deaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was the century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1399. Political and natural disaster and black death ravaged Europe, as well as the four khanates of the Mongol Empire. Consequently, the Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed in Persia, the Chaghatayid dissolved into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as great power in Eastern Europe.

In Europe, the Black Death claimed between 75 and 200 million lives, while England and France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France.


Filippo Brunelleschi, the Italian architect who by many is regarded as the most inventive and gifted designer in history.[1]
This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C..
The Hundred Years' War, Battle of Crécy between the English and French in 1346.

Significant people

Guillaume de Machaut (at right) receiving Nature and three of her children, from an illuminated Parisian manuscript of the 1350s.



Literary figures

Statue of Dante Alighieri at the Uffizi, Florence


Temür Khan (r. 1294-1307), known in Chinese as Emperor Chengzong of Yuan, ruler of the Chinese Yuan dynasty, a grandson of Kublai Khan and considered the sixth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Europe and Near East
14th-century monarchs
14th century manuscript initial depicting Edward III of England (seated) and his son the Black Prince (kneeling)
Edward III and the Black Prince 
Dmitry Donskoy, illustration in Tsarsky Titulyarnik, 17th century
Official court painting of the Hongwu Emperor (reigned 1368-1398 AD), Ming Dynasty, China
The Hongwu Emperor, the founder and first emperor of the Ming dynasty of China 
Ottoman miniature painting of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. Located at Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul.
Osman I, first Sultan of the Ottoman Empire 
Oil-on-panel portrait of Richard II of England, mid-1390s
Portrait of Louis I of Hungary by Jan Matejko
Louis the Great of Hungary, one of the strongest kings of Hungary, c. 1342-1382 

Inventions, discoveries, introductions


  1. Filippo Brunelleschi, Totally History
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Ricklefs (1991), page 18
  3. Kern, J.H.C., (1907), De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghapāça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
  4. Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) [1973]. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72.
  5. Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
  6. Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7
  7. Pound lock

Decades and years

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