African D

For a list of letters that look similar to Ɖ in uppercase, see D with stroke (disambiguation).

Retroflex D (Ɖ, ɖ) is a Latin letter representing the voiced retroflex plosive [ɖ]. Its lower-case variant – d with tail, or d with retroflex hook – is also used to represent this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet (but in the transcription of Languages of India, the same sound may be represented by a d with dot below: ḍ).

The letter is a part of the African reference alphabet, and the upper-case variant is called African D in the Unicode standard, as it is mainly used by African languages such as Ewe,[1] Fon, Aja, and Bassa. The African D is not to be confused with the eth (Ð, ð) of Icelandic, Faroese and Old English, nor with the D with stroke (Đ, đ) of Vietnamese, Serbo-Croatian and Sami languages, although the upper-case forms of these letters tend to look the same.

Retroflex D on computers
Sample Unicode Name HTML reference
Latin Extended-B[2]
IPA Extensions[3]
ɖ U+0256 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH TAIL (retroflex hook) ɖ


  1. Omniglot: Ewe (Eʋegbe) (1998–). Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  2. The Unicode Standard: Latin Extended-B (1991–2010). Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  3. The Unicode Standard: IPA Extensions (1991–2010). Retrieved 21 January 2012.

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